Welcome to the National Curriculum of Pakistan (NCP) 2023 Feedback Portal.

Here you will find a DRAFT version of curriculum documents for Grades 9-12. Please give your feedback on all material shared.

After feedback is incorporated, the provincial/area Implementation Leads will review the updated draft for consensus and finalization.

Feedback for Grades 9-12 is due on March 30, 2023

The revised Standards for Grades 9-12 will be notified by April 2023. The various education departments may then get the NCP 2023 notified through respective cabinets.



Unit: Nature of Biology

Student Learning Objectives:

Know that civilisations across the world have, since before recorded history, studied the workings of the natural world.

- Know that to do science is to be involved in a community of inquiry with certain common principles, methodologies, understandings and processes

2. Explain 'scientific paradigm' is a theoretical model of how nature works

Theory of Knowledge in Biology:

3. Understand that the underlying assumption of science is that the universe has an independent, external reality accessible to human senses and amenable to human reason.

4. Know that the importance of evidence is a fundamental common understanding:

5. State, with examples, how scientists speak of “levels of confidence” (or uncertainty) when discussing experimental outcomes.

6. Know 'empiricism' as the idea that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. Connect this with the philosophical view that evidence from the empirical world is more reliable than mathematical projection.

7. Know 'rationalism' as the idea that knowledge should take precedent from reasoning, not sense-experience. Connect this with the philosophical view that mathematics is more reliable than the impressions made from empirical world.

8. Be able to explain the differences between induction, deduction and abduction in logic:

9. Explain scientific reductionism as the philosophical view that complex interactions and entities can be reducted to the sum of their constituent parts (e.g. the brain)

10. Explain positivism as the view of science that holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof

11. Explain Occam’s Razor as the principle that the simplest explanation is the ideal one; the one with the fewest assumptions

12. Explain falsifiability as the idea that a theory is scientific only if it makes assertions that can be disproven

13. Explain, with examples, that research in biology comes with ethical considerations and implications e.g. testing of drugs in humans during clinical trials, use of animal models in laboratory experiments, stem cell research, gene editing, nuclear research and possibilities of accidents and misuse of findings.

14. Explain, with examples, that scientists analyse data and look for patterns, trends and discrepancies, attempting to discover relationships and establish causal links. This is not always possible, so identifying and classifying observations and artefacts (eg types of galaxies or fossils) is still an important aspect of scientific work.

15. Recognize the below common cognitive biases/fallacies that can hinder sound scientific reasoning:

Scientific Method:

16. Recognise that science is a collaborative field that requires interdisciplinary researchers working together to share knowledge and critique ideas

17. Explain the importance of peer review in quality control of scientific research:

18. Understand and use the terms 'hypothesis', 'theory' and 'law' in the context of research in the natural sciences

19. Explain, with examples of achievements made by scientists/researchers in biology, that the 'scientific method' in practice is not a linear process that goes from hypothesis to theory to law. For instance our understanding of evolution.

20. Explain, with examples, how:

a) scientific models, some simple, some very complex, based on theoretical understanding, are developed to explain processes that may not be observable.

b) computer-based mathematical models are used to make testable predictions, which can be especially useful when experimentation is not possible.

c) dynamic modelling of complex situations involving large amounts of data, a large number of variables and complex and lengthy calculations is only possible as a result of increased computing power.

d) models can sometimes be tested by using data from the past and used to see if they can predict the present situation. If a model passes this test, we gain confidence in its accuracy

21. Know that growth in computing power, sensor technology and networks has allowed scientists to collect large amounts of data:

- Streams of data are downloaded continuously from many sources such as remote sensing satellites and space probes and large amounts of data are generated in gene sequencing machines.

- Research involves analysing large amounts of this data, stored in databases, looking for patterns and unique events. This has to be done using software that is generally written by the scientists involved.

- The data and the software may not be published with the scientific results but would be made generally available to other researchers.

22. As well as collaborating on the exchange of results, scientists work on a daily basis in collaborative groups on a small and large scale within and between disciplines, laboratories, organizations and countries, facilitated even more by virtual communication. Examples of large-scale collaboration include:

– The Manhattan project, the aim of which was to build and test an atomic bomb. It eventually employed more than 130,000 people and resulted in the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in secret, culminating in the dropping of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

– The Human Genome Project (HGP), which was an international scientific research project set up to map the human genome. The $3-billion project beginning in 1990 produced a draft of the genome in 2000. The sequence of the DNA is stored in databases available to anyone on the internet.

– The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), organized under the auspices of the United Nations, is officially composed of about 2,500 scientists. They produce reports summarizing the work of many more scientists from all around the world.

– CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, an international organization set up in 1954, is the world’s largest particle physics laboratory. The laboratory, situated in Geneva, employs about 2,400 people and shares results with 10,000 scientists and engineers covering over 100 nationalities from 600 or more universities and research facilities.

23. All the above examples are controversial to some degree and have aroused emotions among scientists and the public.

24. Scientists often work in areas, or produce findings, that have significant ethical and political implications:

25. Explain, with examples, the below elements of integrity in scientific work:


- Students will know

- the development of science throughout history and the principles underpinning Scientific Discovery

- that science aims to explain the "observable" universe

- the basis of reasoning and evidence as rationalism and empiricism respectively

- the philosophy behind the scientific method

- that complex phenomena can be broken into constituent parts

- the biases that may be present when making arguments

- that science is not independent of the world that it tries to observe

- the level of collaboration it takes to understand the universe

- the importance of information technology and computers in enabling science

Key Vocabulary:

rationalism, empiricism, positivism, Occam's Razaor, Scientific paradigm, biases and logical fallacies, Scientific Method, Falsifiability, Hypothesis, Theory, Law, Collaboration, Comuptuting power


- Being able to differentiate between credible and no-credible sources

- Being able to determine the role of reasoning and evidence in sciences

- Be able to determine the soundness of arguments

- Be able to produce a scientifically sound argument

- Be able to determine the correct parameters of confidence in research

- Be able to use basic Lab equipments


-       How is the public influenced by arguments that claim to be backed by scientific evidence?

-       Is seeking knowledge for the sake of knowledge an ethically sound stance in biological research?

-       Why has biology as a field undergone rapid transformation in the last century?


Formative Assesments

- Compare and contrast presentations

- Class Debates

- Fallacies Worksheet

Summative Assessment


Learning Activities:


  1. Do Mythical Creatures like Mermaids and Krakens Exist?


The purpose of this activity is to help students understand the advantages and limitations of inductive, deductive and abductive reasoning. Have volunteers from the class opt to take part in a parliamentary style debate. One team should argue that these creatures do exist (they will provide the opening arguments), and the other team will then try to argue that they do not. The teams should be allowed time to prepare their arguments in advance, and each speaker should have a fixed amount of time. After the debate, the class should identify by creating a mindmap of the arguments of both sides of the teams when deductive, abductive and inductive logic being used, and how convincing were the arguments and why.


  1. Aristotle vs Plato: Investigating Empiricism vs Rationalism


The purpose of this activity is to help students understand the difference between empiricism and rationalism in the context of Biology. In this Flipped Classroom activity, students should be divided into groups to research the contrasting views of Aristotle and Plato on what living creatures are made up of. One group should research what are some modern debates in Biology about the principles behind which evolution is thought to work, and categorize them under rationalism or empiricism.

3. Methods of Science in Biology

The purpose of this activity is to help students learn how to apply knowledge of the concepts of the terms ‘hypothesis’, ‘theory’ and ‘law’ and appreciate the non-linearity of research in science. Students should in groups be assigned to research on how different historical scientists made contributions to the field of how diseases propagate. They should be ready to share details of the process by which the scientists reached their conclusions, and be ready to highlight where the research process was non-linear (i.e. did not go straightforwardly from having an hypothesis to testing it ‘scientifically’ to that over time becoming a theory) in nature.

4. Paradigm Shifts in Biology

The purpose of this activity is to help students appreciate how paradigm shifts have arguably occurred in the field of Biology. Students should in flipped classroom format research in groups and then present on famous paradigm shifts within Biology:


-       Germ Theory

-       Physiology to molecular biology to systems biology

-       Evolution theory





Unit Biological Molecules

Student Learning Objectives:

- "1. Explain the nature different types of chemical bonds found in Biology and sketch these chemical bonds

2. Outline the various types of common biomolecules including their locations inside the cell and main roles.

3. a) Explain the following for DNA with examples: - The role (“function”) of DNA - The structure of DNA - The letters (nucleotides) of DNA (A, T, G, C) - The types of chemical bonds present in DNA and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of DNA structure b) Define the following: - A gene - An allele - A chromosome - A karyotype - A genome c) Sketch a chromosome

4. Describe the following for RNA with examples: - The role (“function”) of RNA - The variety of structures of RNA - The letters (nucleotides) of RNA (A, U, G, C) - The types of chemical bonds present in RNA and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of RNA structure

5. Describe the following for proteins with examples: - The role (“function”) of proteins - The huge variety of possible structures of proteins - The amino acids of proteins - The types of chemical bonds present in proteins and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of protein structure

6. Describe the following for lipids with examples: - The role (“function”) of lipids - The structure of lipids - The types of chemical bonds present in lipids and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of lipids structure

7. Describe the following for carbohydrates with examples: - The role (“function”) of carbohydrates - The structure of carbohydrates - The types of chemical bonds present in carbohydrates and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of carbohydrate structure

8. Describe the following processes: - The Central Dogma of Biology - DNA Replication - Transcription - Translation

Experimental SLO's

food tests

Isolate DNA from strawberries or other fruits."












Students will know:

- the types of chemical bonds involved in biological molecules

- the structure function and location of DNA and RNA

- the structure function and location of Proteins

- the structure function and location of Carbohydrates

- the structure function and location of Lipids

- the flow of information from DNA RNA to Protein


- Be able to sketch all the different bonds in biology

- Be able to determine where certain molecules will be found

- Connect function of the molecule to its structure

- Be able determine one strand of DNA when provided with Template

- Be able to determine RNA sequence

- Carry out food tests to determine presence of nutrients










































-       How does knowledge of DNA and RNA inform the nature vs nurture debate about the way humans grow?

-       The story of Rosalind Franklin and perspectives on how gender and race can influence who get credit for scientific discoveries

-       Are Designer Babies ethical?



Formative Assessments:

- Food test lab

- Peer reviewed Assessments

- Worksheets

Summative Assessments

- Comprehensive Test

Learning activties:

Biological Molecules and Homeostasis

The purpose of this activity is to familiarize students with biological molecules and their functional groups. Class will be divided into groups, and given play dough, sticks and paints. The group will each be given a different biomolecule, and will need to develop a 3D model of the molecule. They should paint the functional groups in a distinct separate color. After developing their molecules, the teacher will ask them to change the shape and design of their models to reflect the effects of, for example:

-       Increase in temperature

-       Exposure to radiation

-       Exposure to an acid


This will help students visually appreciate how biomolecules undergo change depending on their external environments, and why biological functions require homeostasis.

Information Flow through RNA and DNA

The purpose of this activity is to help students appreciate how DNA and RNA function. Class will be divided into groups. Each group has to assign three teams DNA RNA and Protein. the Teams will be standing in different locations. the protein team will be given the codon chart and function they need to perform. The DNA team will be given multiple sequences with each with its function. The RNA team will be given piece of paper and a pencil. The DNA team has to guide the RNA to the right information. RNA has to copy the information and hand it to the Protein team. Protein team will figure out the amino acid sequence and do the function.

Investigating Biochemicals

The purpose of this activity is to help students apply their knowledge of testing for the presence of different biomolecules. Different groups will be given the same 2 solutions. Each group will be assigned to figure out if the any of the two solutions presented has the nutrient group assigned to them. They will corelate with all other groups to figure out which food are present in which solution.

















Unit Biotechnology



Student Learning Objectives:

1. Define biotechnology.

2. Explain with examples how food biotechnology has advanced agriculture especially inside Pakistan.

3. Explain with examples how medical biotechnology has advanced healthcare in diabetes and cancer.

4. Describe the potential advantages that genetic editing provide with examples in the context of medicine and agriculture.

5. Describe with examples the benefits of marine biotechnology.

6. Describe how bioremediation can help us in taking better care of our environment with an example.

7. Explain the concept and applications of industrial biotechnology with examples.

8. Describe how using biotechnology, you could make glow in the dark fish or rabbits?
























Students will know

- Biotechnology and its use in agriculture

- how medical biotechnology has advanced healtcare

- the advantages of using marine biotechnology

- Use of biotechnology in industries

- the use of biotechnology for bioremidiation


students will know

-techniques for gene editing

- determine whether biotechnology is holistically useful or harmful in the long run

- How food technology can help Pakistan

- Theoretical understanding of expressing flourescent proteins in animals
























-       What is the role of companies in funding biotechnology research and how does that influence the direction the research takes?

-       Is biotechnology the answer to tackling climate change?

-       Does it make sense to patent and copyright living organisms?

-       Is biotechnology the answer to tackling humanity’s medical problems?


Formative Assessments:

- Plasmid Charts

- Presentation on Medicinal and Agriculture biotechnology

Summative Assessments

- Comprehensive Test

- Essay

Learning Activities:

Charting position of genes on Plasmid


Adapted from TeachEngineering

The purpose of this activity is to help students appreciate practically how bioengineering can be done. Ask the students to construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. For the particular model they will work on, they will isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) in order to set up production of the protein insulin. The sheet for cutting out is here, and the Modelling Bacteria Transformation sheet is here. Students should then reflect on their work by considering these self-assessment questions.


Biotechnological Answers to Pollution

The purpose of this activity is to help students appreciate how biotechnology can be applied to address global problems. In this Flipped Classroom activity, students should in groups first identify common pollution problems (e.g. plastics do not biodegrade and then these pollute oceans). They should then research on cutting edge techniques being developed in biotechnology to tackle these issues, and present their findings in class. Their presentations should include models and visuals explaining how the technologies work.

Ethics of Biowarfare

The purpose of this activity is to help students appreciate that biotechnology requires regulation in order to be used for good and not for harm. Have students take part in a parliamentary style debate on the topic ‘should nanorobots be developed that can do brain surgery through remote control?’ The proposition should be begin by arguing for the case that such technology should be developed, and the opposition should then in turn rebut the the proposition’s claims. After the debate, a whole-class discussion should happen in which the class relates the debate to actual developments in contemporary biotechnology and the need for better regulation.















Grades 11-12

Unit Enzymes

Student's Learning Objectives:

• Describe the structure of enzyme.

• Explain the role and component parts of the active site of an enzyme.

• Differentiate among the three types of co-factors i.e. in organic ions, prosthetic group and co-enzymes, with examples.

• Explain the mechanism of enzyme action through Induced Fit Model, comparing it with Lock and Key Model.

• Justify why the Induced Fit model is a better model for enzymes compared to the lock and Key model.

• Explain how an enzyme catalyzes specific reactions.

• Define energy of activation and explain through graph how an enzyme speeds up a reaction by lowering the energy of activation.

• Describe the effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme action

• Compare the optimum temperatures of enzymes of human and thermophilic bacteria.

• Describe the range of pH at which human enzymes function

• Compare the optimum pH of different enzymes like trypsin, pepsin, pepane.

• Describe how the concentration of enzyme affects the rate of enzyme action.

• Explain the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme action

• Describe enzymatic inhibition, its types and its significance.

• Name the molecules which act as inhibitors.

• Categorize inhibitors into competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.

• Explain feedback inhibition.

• Describe why it is easy to inhibit enzymes with deep, well-defined pockets and hard to inhibit enzymes having only smooth structural surfaces with no pockets.

• Classify enzymes on the basis of the reactions catalyzed (oxido-reductases, transferases, hydrolases, isomerases, and ligases).

• Classify enzymes on the basis of the substrates they use (lipases, diastase, amylase, proteases etc).

Experiment 1: Rate of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction












Students will know

- that enzymes are 3d shaped globular proteins with an active site

- that enzymes work with other co-factors and co-enzymes

- know the workings of the induced fit model and the lock and key model

- how an enzyme works

- the effect of temperature on enzyme activity and why

- the effect of pH on enzyme activity and why

- effect of substrate concentration

- effect of enzyme concentration

-Inhbitions and the type of inhibitions

-How feedback inhibitions help keep metabolic activities undercontrol


They will be able to determine

- how the induced fit model allows for lowering of activation energy

-plan out rate of reaction experiments with different enzyme factors

-how to control activity of enzyme controlled reactions through inhibtiors

-be able sketch graphs based on different factors that affect enzyme activity

- How to classify enzymes based on either reactions or substrates














-       How do we assess that enzymes that have been harvested ethically from living organisms?

-       How do biologists determine what is the biomolecular mechanism responsible for a certain process?



Formative assessments

- Lab experiments

- Peer reviewed worksheets

Summative Assessment:

- Lab Experiments

- Theoretical Test

Learning Activities:

Investigating with Bioactive Washing Powder

The purpose of this activity is to help students apply their knowledge of the factors that determine enzyme activity. Bring a pile of old clothes or rags to the classroom, and stain each of the items with the same food stain. Then ask the students to use the below materials to investigate the effect of enzymes:


-       Bioactive washing powder with water at 20 C vs simple soap at 20 C

-       Bioactive washing power with water at 40 C vs simple soap at 20 C


Ask them to note down their observations, and explain whether the above experiments help indicate the effectiveness of enzymes in biochemical processes. Ask them how the experiment could be further improved, and what further scientific research questions emerge from their observations. Then have them conduct those experiments again with their modifications to help them appreciate the scientific processes of inquiry.

Lab Demonstration of Enzyme Catalysis

The purpose of this experiment is to show students visually how enzymes facilitate chemical transformation. Demonstrate a simple catalase reaction to students to show how quickly product is formed at room temperature in enzymatic reactions. Oxygen gas is released as a product which can be easily testable with a glowing splint test. Allows student to observe enzymes can reduce activation energy and allow reactions to happen at body temperature.












Unit Plants

Student Learning Objectives

"• List the macro and micronutrients of plants highlighting the role of each nutrient.

• State the examples of carnivorous plant.Understanding

• Explain the role of stomata and palisade tissue in the exchange of gases in plants.

• Relate transpiration with gas exchange in plants.

• Describe the structure of xylem vessel elements, sieve tube elements, companion cells, trachieds andrelate their structures with functions.

• Explain the movement of water between plant cells, and between the cells and their environment interms of water potential.

• Explain the movement of water through roots in terms of symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathways.

• Explain the movement of water in xylem through TACT mechanism.• Describe the mechanisms involved in the opening and closing of stomata.

• Explain the movement of sugars within plants.

• Define osmotic adjustment.

• Explain movement of water into or out of cell in isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.

• Describe osmotic adjustments in hydrophytic (marine and freshwater), xerophytic and mesophytic plants.

• Explain the osmotic adjustments of plants in saline soils.

• List the adaptations in plants to cope with low and high temperatures.• Explain the turgor pressure and explain its significance in providing support to herbaceous plants.

• Describe the structure of supporting tissues in plants.

• Define growth and explain primary and secondary growth in plants.

• Describe the role of apical meristem and lateral meristem in primary and secondary growth.

• Explain how annual rings are formed.• Explain influence of apical meristem on the growth of lateral shoots.

• Explain the role of important plant growth regulators.

• Explain the types of movement in plants in response to light, force of gravity, touch and chemicals.

• Define photoperiodism.

• Classify plants on the basis of photoperiodism and give examples.Describe the mechanism of photoperiodism with reference to the mode of action of phytochrome.

• Explain the role of low temperature treatment on flower production especially to biennials andperennials.

Experiment 22: Environmental conditions and water uptake

Experiment 12: Investigating plant mineral deficiencies

Experiment 21: Sucrose concentration and pollen tube growth

Experiment 25: Gibberellin on the production of Amylase"












Students will know

- The nutrients required by plants and their relative quantities

- the carnivorous plants in nature and the environment they are found in

- how the stomata works and what is its role

- the structure and function of the xylem vessel and how they are related

- the structure and function of the phloem vessel and how they are related

- that the sieve tube element cells need a companion cell to survive

- How water moves between plant cells

- the three pathways of water in the roots

- how water moves up the xylem vessel

- how sugars move in the phloem vessel through Mass Flow

- Osmotic adjusments that freshwater and marine water plants make

- The adaptations that plants make to high temperature and low temperature

- The supporting structure of plant tissue

- the chemicals invovled in plant growth

- Primary and Seconday Growth in plants

- Effect of different stimuli on plant movement such light, gravity, touch and chemicals

- What is photoperiodism and how it can used to classify plants

- how temperature affects flowes on a plant


- Be able to determins the effect of different environments on water uptake

- the effect of different mineral deficiencies on plant growth

- the effect of sucrose concentration on pollen tubes

- the effect of gibberellins on amylase production

- identify xylem and phloem on an electron micrograph















-       What has been the influence of colonialism in the way that plants are named in Biology and the credit that is assigned for the discovery of their medical properties?

-       Can plants be bioengineered to provide for the needs of humanity in a world affected by climate change?

-       Do plants have ‘feelings’?



Formative Assesments:

Lab Reports



Summative Assessment

Comprehensive Test

Learning Activities:

Garden Investigations

The purpose of this activity is to help students appreciate the biology of plants in their surroundings. Students should conduct a garden walk, and conduct detailed observations of the flora and fauna based on what they have learn about plant anatomy in this unit. Rather than simple observing with the naked eye, students should be encouraged to use their cell phones (the Zoom feature of their cameras, and then editing the photos to bring into contrast the anatomical features such as leaf veins), taking cuttings and try illuminating the plants with different colored lights (e.g. red light) as these help bring different anatomical features into relief. After looking at these anatomical features, students should be encouraged to develop their own research questions to validate the theory they have learnt in class. Then they should over the next few weeks conduct those experiments with the garden plants, and be ready to present their findings and methodologies in class.

Research Mineral Deficiencies in Plants

The purpose of this activity is to experimentally verify the effects of nutritional deficiencies in plants. Students will be divided in groups and each group will have to grow plants lacking in a particular mineral in the start. Each group will make observations on the effect of plant growth. The findings would be discussed in the mineral deificiencies class.












Unit Pharmocological drugs

Student Learning Objectives

"• Explain the drug discovery and development process.

• Explain the different classes of drugs work against HIV.

• Explain the mechanism of action of Sovaldi whcih cures Hepatitis C.

• Describe why in Harvoni, Sovaldi is combined with Gilead's ledipasvir (an NS5A inhibitor).

• Compare and contrast Harvoni with Sovaldi

• Describe advantages of monoclonal antibodies enjoy compared to other drug classes.

• Explain the mechanism of action of rituximab (Mabthera).

• Explain the term precision medicine.

• Explain the different classes of drugs work against HIV.

• Explain the mechanism of action of Sovaldi which cures Hepatitis C.

• Describe why in Harvoni, Sovaldi is combined with Gilead's ledipasvir (an NS5A inhibitor).

• Explain the mechanism of action of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy for leukemia.

• Describe fecal transplant and name the condition it is used to treat.

• Explain the drug discovery and development process.

• Explain the clinical trials approval process for any new drug candidate.

Experiment 13: Antimicrobial properties of plants

Experiment 17: Effect of different antibiotics"












students will know

- how are drugs discovered

- how are drugs developed

- the different drugs for HIV

- how sovaldi works

- the difference between harvoni and Solvadi

- why do either harvoni or solvadi need to be paired with NS5a inhibitor

- the advantages of monoclonal antibodies

- the term precision medicine and what i means

- how CAR-T Therapy works for leukimia

- what are fecal transplants and why are they used

- How clinical Trials work


- be able to determine the effect of different antibiotics

- whether plants are antimicrobial in nature

- how to carry out a clinical trial

- how to evaluate drug efficacy and safety














-       Have drug trials been conducted ethically with human and animal subjects historically and in the contemporary era?

-       How do we decide whether it is better to go ahead and use drug now, or to wait for decades to assess its long-term effects?

-       How can we be sure that we have studied all the possible effects of a drug on humans?



Fomative assessments

- Presentations

- Problem solving

- Lab work

Summative Assesments:

- Case study solve

- Test

Learning Activities

Covid-19 Case Study

The purpose of this activity is to help students with a contemporary example appreciate how drug discovery and drug development processes occur. Students should in groups be tasked with researching on the discovery and development of various international drugs for tackling Covid-19 e.g. Remdesivir. They should research both drugs that are being proven successful and those that failed to eventually get approved. The students should in their presentations highlight what were the factors, in their observations, that enhanced and hindered the discovery and development processes.

Pros and Cons of Choice of Drugs

The purpose of this activity is to help students appreciate that different drugs can have different pros and cons in tackling the same ailment. Groups will be divided in class and each group will be assigned either solvadi or harvoni. Each group will present their work and has to defend their drug of choice as a treatment for HepC. Each group will have to colloborate with other groups assigned the same drug.They would have to divide which group tackles which aspect of the drug.