Welcome to the National Curriculum of Pakistan (NCP) 2023 Feedback Portal.

Here you will find a DRAFT version of curriculum documents for Grades 9-12. Please give your feedback on all material shared.

After feedback is incorporated, the provincial/area Implementation Leads will review the updated draft for consensus and finalization.

Feedback for Grades 9-12 is due on March 30, 2023

The revised Standards for Grades 9-12 will be notified by April 2023. The various education departments may then get the NCP 2023 notified through respective cabinets.

Grade 9-10

(green in grade 9 and blue is grade 10)



Time duration of one session: 1 hr

Number of sessions per week: 5 sessions

Total teaching hours for complete academic year: 175 Hrs / 35 weeks











Week #

Broad Topic/Chapter

(e.g. in Physics the chapter could be 'Light')

Break-Down for the Week

Learning Objectives

(give both serial no and state the objective in full)






Introduction to Biology

Day1: Define Biology with boundaries and limitations, highlight the importance of biology with different examples

Day2: The different Fields of biology.

Day3: Different fields of biology (contd)

Day4: Introduction to Biology Lab

Day 5:  Exploration Activity

Day6: Interaction of Biology with other fields

Day7: The basis and organizaiton of Life.

Day 8:  Exploration Activity

Day 9: Revision

Day10: Summative Assesment

1. Describe biology as the study of living organsims.

2. Explain with examples that biology has many sub-fields. Students should be able to distinguish in terms of the broad subject matter the below fields:

- Cell Biology

- Developmental Biology

- Genetics

- Epigenetics

- Structural Biology

- Disease Biology

- Neuroscience

- Ecology

- Evolution

- Plant Biology

- Marine Biology

- Immunology

- Xenobiology

3. Explain with examples that in the modern world biology is involved in many interdisciplinary fields. Students should be able to distinguish in terms of the broad subject matter the below fields:

- Biophysics

- Biochemistry

- Computational Biology

- Mathematical Biology

- BioEngineering

4. Explain with examples the importance of Biology. Why does it matter? Why should we care about it at all? Establish its importance by giving examples of medicines, agriculture, climate change, vaccines etc.

5. Describe the levels of organization for living organisms.

Biomolecules> Sub-cellular organelles > Cells > Tissues > Organs > Systems > Organisms

• simple quantitative experiments, including the measurement of:

• – volumes of gases or solutions/liquids

• – masses

• – temperatures

• – times

• – lengths



Note: Keep in mind that teachers are expected to conduct activities, not simply lecture students. So time taken to complete a topic should keep this in mind.


Nature of Biology

Day1: A Brief history of Biology

Day2: A brief history of Biology (contd)

Day3: The scientific community and its workings across time

Day4:  Exploration  Activity

Day5: The workings of nature. Observation and Reasoning

Day6: Observation and Reasoning (contd)

Day7: Experimentation and Evidence gathering. How can we be certain of evidence and experimental outcomes

Day8: Classification and its Importance. What Pattern Recognition Tells Us

Day9: Falsifiability and Positivism

Day10: Reductionism and Occam's Razor

Day11:  Exploration Activity

Day12: Biases and Fallacies that hinder Scientific Reasoning

Day 13: What is the Scientific Method

Day14: The Power of Data and Collaboration

Day15: Science, Ethics and Politics

Day 16:  Revision

Day17:  Summative assessment

History of Biology:

1. Explain, with examples, that:

- civilisations across the world have, since before recorded history, studied the workings of natural world.

- to do science is to be involved in a community of inquiry with certain common principles, methodologies, understandings and processes (these have varied across geographically and historically)

2. Explain, with examples, that a 'scientific paradigm' is a theoretical model of how nature works

Theory of Knowledge in Biology:

3. State that an underlying assumption of science is that the universe has an independent, external reality accessible to human senses and amenable to human reason.

4. Know that the importance of evidence is a fundamental common understanding:

- Evidence can be obtained by observation or experiment. It can be gathered by human senses, primarily sight, but much modern science is carried out using instrumentation and sensors that can gather information remotely and automatically in areas that are too small, or too far away, or otherwise beyond human sense perception.

- Experimentation in a controlled environment, generally in laboratories, is the other way of obtaining evidence in the form of data, and there are many conventions and understandings as to how this is to be achieved.

5. State, with examples, how scientists speak of “levels of confidence” (or uncertainty) when discussing experimental outcomes.

6. Explain 'empiricism' as the idea that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. Connect this with the philosophical view that evidence from the empirical world is more reliable than mathematical projection.

7. Explain 'rationalism' as the idea that knowledge should take precedent from reasoning, not sense-experience. Connect this with the philosophical view that mathematics is more reliable than the impressions made from empirical world.

8. Explain, with examples in the context of biology, the differences between induction, deduction and abduction in logic:

- Deductive reasoning is a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true

- Inductive reasoning is a logical process involving making rational guesses based on data

- Abductive reasoning is inference that goes from an observation to a theory which accounts for the observation, ideally seeking to find the simplest and most likely explanation

9. Explain scientific reductionism as the philosophical view that complex interactions and entities can be reducted to the sum of their constituent parts (e.g. the brain)

10. Explain positivism as the view of science that holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof

11. Explain Occam’s Razor as the principle that the simplest explanation is the ideal one; the one with the fewest assumptions

12. Explain falsifiability as the idea that a theory is scientific only if it makes assertions that can be disproven

13. Explain, with examples, that research in biology comes with ethical considerations and implications e.g. testing of drugs in humans during clinical trials, use of animal models in laboratory experiments, stem cell research, gene editing, nuclear research and possibilities of accidents and misuse of findings.

14. Explain, with examples, that scientists analyse data and look for patterns, trends and discrepancies, attempting to discover relationships and establish causal links. This is not always possible, so identifying and classifying observations and artefacts (eg types of galaxies or fossils) is still an important aspect of scientific work.

15. Recognize the below common cognitive biases/fallacies that can hinder sound scientific reasoning:

- the confirmation bias

- hasty generalizations

- post hoc ergo propter hoc (false cause)

- the straw man fallacy

- redefinition (moving the goal posts)

- the appeal to tradition

- false authority

- failing Occam's Razor

- argument from non-testable hypothesis

- begging the question

- fallacy of exclusion

- faulty analogy

Scientific Method:

16. Recognise that science is a collaborative field that requires interdisciplinary researchers working together to share knowledge and critique ideas

17. Explain the importance of peer review in quality control of scientific research:

- Scientists spend a considerable amount of time reading the published results of other scientists.

- They publish their own results in scientific journals after a process called peer review. This is when the work of a scientist or, more usually, a team of scientists is anonymously and independently reviewed by several scientists working in the same field who decide if the research methodologies are sound and if the work represents a new contribution to knowledge in that field.

- They also attend conferences to make presentations and display posters of their work.

- Publication of peer-reviewed journals on the internet has increased the efficiency with which the scientific literature can be searched and accessed.

- There are a large number of national and international organizations for scientists working in specialized areas within subjects.

18. Understand and use the terms 'hypothesis', 'theory' and 'law' in the context of research in the natural sciences

19. Explain, with examples of achievements made by scientists/researchers in biology, that the 'scientific method' in practice is not a linear process that goes from hypothesis to theory to law. For instance our understanding of evolution.

20. Explain, with examples, how:

a) scientific models, some simple, some very complex, based on theoretical understanding, are developed to explain processes that may not be observable.

b) computer-based mathematical models are used to make testable predictions, which can be especially useful when experimentation is not possible.

c) dynamic modelling of complex situations involving large amounts of data, a large number of variables and complex and lengthy calculations is only possible as a result of increased computing power.

d) models can sometimes be tested by using data from the past and used to see if they can predict the present situation. If a model passes this test, we gain confidence in its accuracy

21. Know that growth in computing power, sensor technology and networks has allowed scientists to collect large amounts of data:

- Streams of data are downloaded continuously from many sources such as remote sensing satellites and space probes and large amounts of data are generated in gene sequencing machines.

- Research involves analysing large amounts of this data, stored in databases, looking for patterns and unique events. This has to be done using software that is generally written by the scientists involved.

- The data and the software may not be published with the scientific results but would be made generally available to other researchers.

22. As well as collaborating on the exchange of results, scientists work on a daily basis in collaborative groups on a small and large scale within and between disciplines, laboratories, organizations and countries, facilitated even more by virtual communication. Examples of large-scale collaboration include:

– The Manhattan project, the aim of which was to build and test an atomic bomb. It eventually employed more than 130,000 people and resulted in the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in secret, culminating in the dropping of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

– The Human Genome Project (HGP), which was an international scientific research project set up to map the human genome. The $3-billion project beginning in 1990 produced a draft of the genome in 2000. The sequence of the DNA is stored in databases available to anyone on the internet.

– The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), organized under the auspices of the United Nations, is officially composed of about 2,500 scientists. They produce reports summarizing the work of many more scientists from all around the world.

– CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, an international organization set up in 1954, is the world’s largest particle physics laboratory. The laboratory, situated in Geneva, employs about 2,400 people and shares results with 10,000 scientists and engineers covering over 100 nationalities from 600 or more universities and research facilities.

23. All the above examples are controversial to some degree and have aroused emotions among scientists and the public.

24. Scientists often work in areas, or produce findings, that have significant ethical and political implications:

- These areas include nuclear power, artificial intelligence development, exploring asteroids and planets in outerspace through processes like explosions and drilling, and weapons development.

- There are also questions involving intellectual property rights and the free exchange of information that may impact significantly on a society.

- Science is undertaken in universities, commercial companies, government organizations, defence agencies and international organizations. Questions of patents and intellectual property rights arise when work is done in a protected environment.

- Science has been used to solve many problems and improve humankind’s lot, but it has also been used in morally questionable ways and in ways that inadvertently caused problems. Advances in sanitation, clean water supplies and hygiene led to significant decreases in death rates but without compensating decreases in birth rates, this led to huge population increases with all the problems of resources, energy and food supplies that entails.

- Ethical discussions, risk–benefit analyses, risk assessment and the precautionary principle are all parts of the scientific way of addressing the common good.

25. Explain, with examples, the below elements of integrity in scientific work:

- results should not be fixed or manipulated or doctored.

- to help ensure academic honesty and guard against plagiarism, all sources are quoted and appropriate acknowledgment made of help or support.

- All science has to be funded and the source of the funding is crucial in decisions regarding the type of research to be conducted.



Evolution, Biodiversity and Classification

Day1: The theory of evolution by natural selection

Day2: How Variation Occurs

Day3: Evidence and Examples of Evolution

Day4: Exploration activity

Day5: Classification of Organisms

Day6: History of evolution theories and Classification

Day7: A Living/non-living complication

Day8:  Revision

Day9:  Summative Assessment

1. Explain the theory of evolution.

2. Describe speciation.

3. Describe sources of variation which can lead to speciation and evolution.

4. Describe evidence of evolution with regards to the following

- Paleontology (fossil record)

- Comparative anatomy (homologous structures, vestigial structures)

- Selective breeding

5. Describe the history of evolutionary theories.

6. Explain the process of natural selection with examples.

7. Describe advantages of classification.

8. Describe the history of classification schemes.

9. List the three distinct domains into which living organisms are broadly classified into.

10. List the taxonomic ranks of classification.

11. Outline the binomial nomenclature system.

12. Describe the complications of classifying viruses.

13. Describe the scientific theories which go against the theory of evolution and the evidence that supports them.



Biological Molecules

Day 1: The Molecules of Life

Day2: The different bonds found in Biology

Day3: Carbohydrates

Day4: Lipids

Day5: Nucliec Acids

Day 6 Proteins

Day 7:Exploration Activity

Day8: Lab Work

Day 9: Lab Work:Extraction of DNA

Day10: Central Dogma

Day 11:  Revision

Day 12: Summative Assessment

1. Explain the nature different types of chemical bonds found in Biology (hydrogen bonds, covalent bonds, wan Der Waals interactions, electrostatics interactions, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions etc), and sketch these chemical bonds

2. Outline the various types of common biomolecules (DNA, RNA, Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates) including their locations inside the cell and main roles.

3. a) Explain the following for DNA with examples: - The role (“function”) of DNA - The structure of DNA - The letters (nucleotides) of DNA (A, T, G, C) - The types of chemical bonds present in DNA and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of DNA structure b) Define the following: - A gene - An allele - A chromosome - A karyotype - A genome c) Sketch a chromosome

4. Describe the following for RNA with examples: - The role (“function”) of RNA - The variety of structures of RNA - The letters (nucleotides) of RNA (A, U, G, C) - The types of chemical bonds present in RNA and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of RNA structure

5. Describe the following for proteins with examples: - The role (“function”) of proteins - The huge variety of possible structures of proteins - The amino acids of proteins - The types of chemical bonds present in proteins and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of protein structure

6. Describe the following for lipids with examples: - The role (“function”) of lipids - The structure of lipids - The types of chemical bonds present in lipids and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of lipids structure

7. Describe the following for carbohydrates with examples: - The role (“function”) of carbohydrates - The structure of carbohydrates - The types of chemical bonds present in carbohydrates and their individual roles - Identify the various types of chemical bonds in a diagram of carbohydrate structure

8. Describe the following processes: - The Central Dogma of Biology - DNA Replication - Transcription - Translation

Experimental SLO's

food tests

Isolate DNA from strawberries or other fruits.



Midterm Revision

Midterm Revision

Midterm Revision



Cells and Subcellular Organelles

Day1: The fundamental unit of Life

Day2: Ultrastructure of Cells

Day3: Exploration activity

Day4:  Lab Work

3. Image and sketch plant cells under a microscope.

4. Image and sketch animal cells under a microscope

Day5: Transport Mechanisms

Day6: Lab work

Day7: Cell cycle and Cell Division

Day8: Cell Cycle and Cell Division (contd)

Day9: Stem Cells and Cell Differentiation

Day10: Exploration Activity

Day 11: Revision

Day12: Summative Assessment

1. Describe why are cells needed?

2. Sketch the structure of animal and plant cells and outline how their distinct characteristics provide unique advantages.

3. Identify different types of cells and sketch their structures (plant, animal, neurons, muscle, red blood cell, liver cell)?

4. Describe how the the different structures provide unique characteristics to each cell type.

5. Describe and sketch different sub-cellular organelles (nucleus, mitochodria, cell membranes, proteasome etc). What are their roles? Outline how their individual structures enable them to carry out unit functions.

6. Explain the different steps in the cell cycle (including checkpoints).

7. Explain mitosis, meiosis and binary fission.

8. Describe intra and intercellular transport of materials.

9. Describe the concept of division of labour and how it applies to - within cells (across sub-cellular organelles) - multi-cellular organisms (across cells)

10. Sketch the process of mitosis and meiosis

11. Explain cell fate differentiation with diagrams.

12. Describe what types of situations would warrant an increase in cell division? What about reducing cell division?

13. Describe the unique advantages stem cells possess that make them incredibly useful.

Experimental SLO:

3. Image and sketch plant cells under a microscope.

4. Image and sketch animal cells under a microscope

Verifying the principle of osmosis by measuring the increase in mass of a deshelled egg placed in a salt solution

Identify cells undergoing mitosis by viewing onion root cells under a microscope.



Tissues, Organs and Systems

Day1: Emergent Properties

Day2: Cells to Tissues

Day3: Tissues to Organs

Day4: Organs to Systems

Day5: The blood System

Day6: The heart

Day7: Gaseous Exchange

Day8: Smoking and heart and Lung Problems

Day9: Exploration Activity

Day10: Lab Work

Day11: Homeostasis

Day12: Plant physiology

Day 13: Exploration Activity

Day 14: Lab Work

Day 15:  Revision

Day16: Revision

Day17:  Summative Assessment


1. Distinguish between tissues, organs and systems with examples.

2. Describe the concept of emergent properties and how it applies to the following:

- going from sub-cellular organelles to cells

- going from cells to tissues

- going from tissues to organs

- going from organs to systems

- going from systems to living organisms

3. Describe how the muscle tissue coordinates the actions of muscle cells to achieve movement.

4. Describe how different types of tissue come together to form the stomach organ in the human body.

5. Describe how different types of tissue come together to form the brain organ in the human body.

6. Describe how different types of organs come together to form the nervous system in the human body.

7. Describe how different types of organs come together to form the digestive system in the human body.

8. Describe how different types of systems come together to form the human body.

9. Describe how the blood is circulated inside the human body.

10. Explain how blood is used to transport materials throughout the human body.

11. Explain different types of organs connected to the blood system and their roles.

12. Describe the different components of blood.

13. Explain the cell types found in blood and their roles.

14. Explain the structure of the heart with a diagram.

15. Explain common heart diseases.

16. Explain the harmful effects of smoking.

17. Describe the advantages of homeostasis.

18. Explain how various organs and systems of the human body work to maintain homeostasis.

19. Explain how the urinary system filters human blood with diagrams.

20. Explain how gases are exchanged through the respiratory system in humans.

21. Explain plant physiology in terms of structures and roles of various plant organs.

Experimental SLO:

Determine if photosynthesis can take place without sunlight by using a destarched plant.

18. Analyze the effects of smoking by extracting tar from a burning cigarette and universal indicator solution.




Day1: Metabolism

Day2: Metabolic pathways in Plants and Humans

Day3: Enzymes and How they work

Day4: Factors affecting Enzyme activity

Day5: Enzyme Inhibition

Day6: Respiration and Photosyntheis

Day7: Energy currency of the body

Day8: What happens to the chicken you eat

Day9: Exploration Activity

Day10: Exploration activity

Day 11: Lab Work

Day12: Lab Work

Day 13:  Lab Work

Day14: Revision

Day15: Revision

Day16: Summative Assessment

1. Describe metabolism, catabolism and anabolism with examples.

2. Describe which metabolic reactions happen in humans and plants.

3. Outline metabolic pathways inside humans.

4. Describe how enzymes enhance metabolic reactions.

5. Describe what factors could influence enzyme catalysis.

6. Describe competitive, non-competitive inhibition.

7. Explain the role of ATP as energy currency.

8. Explain how photosynthesis occurs in plants.

9. Explain how aerobic respiration occurs in muscle cells.

10. Explain how anaerobic respiration occurs in muscle cells.

11. Describe the induced fit model and its advantages over the lock and key model for enzymes.

12. Describe how chicken in any meal would ultimately be converted into useful materials and transported to a cell

Experimental SLO's

9. Validating the principle of respiration by blowing custard powder througha candle flame to create a fireball.

10. Determine if photosynthesis can take place without carbon dioxide by using a destarched plant.

11. Practicing biochemical separation by extracting iron from fortified breakfast cereal.

12. Validating factors affecting enzymatic digestion by placing tinned and fresh pineapple slices (which contain bromelase enzyme) separately on freshly made jelly (has proteins like gelatin).

16. Burn different Pakistani food samples to determine their energy content.

7. Fermentation of glucose with yeast to produce ethanol



Final Revison

Final Revision

Final Revision



Nervous system

Day1: The Nervous System

Day2: Neurons

Day3: Neurons (contd)

Day 4: Exploratory Activity

Day5: Synapes

Day 6: Transmission of a Nerve Impulse

Day 7: Exploratory activity

Day 8: Lab Work

Day 9: Endocrine System

Day10: Reflex Arc

Day 11: Revision

Day 12:  Summative Assessment

1. Explain the structure of the nervous system and its role.

2. Describe the central nervous system.

3. Describe the peripheral nervous system.

4. Sketch a neuron.

5. Outline types of neurons.

6. Describe the structural differences a neuron has compared to other cells which enable its unique function.

7. Describe a stimuli with examples.

8. Describe membrane potential, resting potential and action potentials for neurons.

9. Explain synapses.

10. Sketch a synpase.

11. Describe neurotransmitters.

12. Explain the Endocrine system with examples.

13. Describe and explain through sketching a diagram how the nervous system would be involved when a person accidentally touches something painfully hot and withdraws their hands as a reflex.



Reproduction and Inheritance

Day1: Hormone and Puberty

Day2: Types of Reproduction

Day3: Types of Reproduction (contd)

Day4: Exploratory Activity

Day5: Chromosomes, Meiosis and Reproduction

Day6:  Lab work

Day7: Genotypes and Phenotype

Day8: Inheritance

Day9: Inheritance (contd)

Day10:  Exploratory activity

Day 11: Pregnancy

Day12: Identical Twins & IVF

Day13:  Revision

Day14: Revision

Day15:  Summative Assessment

1. Describe the role of hormones in both male and female sexual development.

2. Describe sexual reproduction in humans.

3. Describe asexual reproduction mechanisms with examples.

4. Describe mechanisms of reproduction in plants.

5. Describe sexual determination in humans.

6. Sketch chromosomes.

7. Describe genotype and phenotype.

8. Describe mendelian inheritance patterns.

9. Describe non-mendelian inheritance patterns.

10. Describe genetic recombination.

11. Describe monohybrid and dihybrid phenotypes.

12. Sketch the structures of male and female sex cells.

13. Describe human pregnancy with a diagram.

14. Describe the need and procedure of IVF.

15. Describe how identical twins are born.

Experimental SLO

7. Practice plant cloning by taking a cutting from a plant and growing it up to produce a clone of the original parent plant.






Disease and Immunity

Day 1: Pathogen, Disease and Immunity

Day2: Components of the Immune System

Day3: Blood clotting

day4: Exploration Activity

Day5: Production of antbodies and their functions

Day6: Vaccines and how they work

Day 7: Exploration Activity

Day8: Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

Day9: Diabetes & SCID

Day10: Cancer & Alzeihmers

Day11: Personalized therapy

Day12:  Lab Work

Day13: Drugs Biologics and Generics

Day14: Lab work

Day15: Plant Diseases

Day 16: Revision

Day 17: Summative Assessment

1. Define disease, illness and infection and pathogen.

2. List the different types of pathogens.

3. List the roles of the immune system.

4. Explain the components of the immune system covering the following;

- Lymphatic system (lymph nodes)

- Types of immune cells and their roles

- Innate immunity, adaptive immunity and the three lines of defense

5. Describe the process of blood clotting.

6. Describe how antibodies are produced.

7. Describe how antibodies eliminate pathogens.

8. Describe the discovery of penicillin.

9. Describe how Diabetes harms the human body and its types.

10. Describe how cancer harms the human body.

11. Describe how Covid-19 harms the human body.

12. Describe the harmful effects of Alzheimer’s disease.

13. Describe the harmful effects of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).

14. Describe how vaccines help boost immunity to different pathogens with examples.

15. Describe how resistance develops in bacteria.

16. Explain what plant diseases are prevalent inside Pakistan, how they affect etc plants health and yield and what treatments or cures are available (with diagrams as needed).

17. Describe the advantages of personalized therapy?

18. Describe what are orphan drugs, biologics, and generics in the context of the pharmaceutical world.







Day1: Biotechnology and Genetic Modification

Day2: glow in the dark animals and other uses of biotechnology

Day3:  Exploration Activity

Day 4:  Lab Work

Day5: Industrial Biotech

Day6: Food and healthcare biotechnology

Day7: Agriculture, Marine and Bioremidation

Day8:  Exploration Activity

Day9: Lab Work

Day10:  Revision

Day11:  Summative Assessment

1. Define biotechnology.

2. Explain with examples how food biotechnology has advanced agriculture especially inside Pakistan.

3. Explain with examples how medical biotechnology has advanced healthcare in diabetes and cancer.

4. Describe the potential advantages that genetic editing provide with examples in the context of medicine and agriculture.

5. Describe with examples the benefits of marine biotechnology.

6. Describe how bioremediation can help us in taking better care of our environment with an example.

7. Explain the concept and applications of industrial biotechnology with examples.

8. Describe how using biotechnology, you could make glow in the dark fish or rabbits?






Biostatistics and Data Handling

Day1: Averages; Mean, Median, Mode

Day2: Exploration Activity

Day3:  Lab work

Day4: Correlation and Line of Best Fit

Day5: Bar charts and Error Bars

Day 6: Revision

Day7: Revision

Day8:  Summative Assessment 


1. Describe biostatistics and its use.

2. Define mean, median, standard deviation, range, percentile.

3. Calculate mean, median, standard deviation, range, percentile from a given set of data.

4. Calculate correlation between two sets of data.

5. Sketch a line of best fit for a given set of data.

6. Sketch a bar chart for a given set of data.

7. Sketch error bars based off of range or standard deviation for a given set of data on a bar chart.

8. Deduce and sketch the appropriate type of figure or chart for a given set of data and/or experiment (bar chart, pie chart, x-y axis data figure etc).






Midterm Revision

Midterm Revision

Midterm Revision






Structural Biology and Computational Biology

Day1: Structural Biology and the Structure function Relationship

Day2: How do we find Biological Structures

Day3: Compare and Contrast NMR, X-ray crystallography, Cryo EM

Day4:  Exploration activity

Day5: Computational Biology Overview

Day6:  Lab work

Day7: Sequence and Structural Homology

Day8: Genomics and Proteomics

Day9: Systems Biology and Building computational Models

Day 10:  Exploration acitivity

Day 11: Lab work

Day8: Studying Evolution

Day9: Drug Discovery

Day10: Drug Development

Day 11:  Exploration Activity

Day12: Revision

Day13: Revision

Day14: Summative Assessment

1. Define structural biology.

2. Describe how X-ray crystallography works.

3. Describe how Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) works.

4. Describe how Cryo-Electron Microscopy works.

5. Compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of X-ray crystallography, NMR and Cryo-Electron Microscopy.

6. Describe why structure determination of biomolecules is important.

7. Outline the online databases where biomolecule structures are available.

8. Describe computational Biology.

9. Describe:

- sequence homology.

- different softwares one can use to perform sequence homology of various biomolecules and their advantages.

10. Describe:

- structural homology.

- different softwares one can use to perform structural homology of various biomolecules

11. Describe systems biology with examples.

12. Describe how computational biology is used to study evolution.

13. Describe genomics and the advantages of studying it.

14. Describe proteomics and the advantages of studying it.

15. Describe with examples how computational biology can be used to build useful models of biological systems.

16. Describe how the drug development process works in the pharmaceutical industry.

17. Describe the role structural biology plays in drug discovery.

18. Describe the role structural biology plays in drug development process.

19. Describe the role computational biology plays in drug discovery.

19. Describe the role computational biology plays in drug development.






Final Revision

Final Revision

Final Revision








Grades 11-12

(green in grade 11 and blue is grade 12)




Time duration of one session: 1 hr

Number of sessions per week: 5 sessions

Total teaching hours for complete academic year: 80 hrs



Week #

Broad Topic/Chapter

(e.g. in Physics the chapter could be 'Light')

Break-Down for the Week

Learning Objectives

(give both serial no and state the objective in full)






Cell Biology

Day1: The Basic Unit Of Life

Day2: Electron Microscopy & Ultrastructure of Cells

Day3:  Exploration Activity 

Day4: Lab work

Day5: Role and Processes in Organelles

Day6: Cell Signalling

Day7: Stem cells

Day8: Stem Cells (contd)

Day9: Structure of the Cell Membrane

Day10: Transport Across the Cell Membrane

Day11: Exploration acitivity

Day12:  Lab Work

Day13: Origin of Life

Day 14: Cell Division

Day 15: Cell Division (contd)

Day16:  Revision

Day17: Revision

Day18: Summative Assessment

1. Describe why cells are needed.

2. Sketch animal and plant cells.

3. Sketch the following sub-cellular organelles:



-cell membrane

-cell wall



- Golgi apparatus

- smooth endoplasmic reticulum


-rough endoplasmic reticulum




- proteasome

- vacuoles

- ribosomes

4. Describe the role and processes occurring in the following sub-cellular organelles:



-cell membrane



-cell wall



- Golgi apparatus

- smooth endoplasmic reticulum

-rough endoplasmic reticulum



- proteasome

- vacuoles

- ribosomes

5. Describe the function of cellular signaling.

6. Explain with examples different types of signaling cascades present in cells.

7. Explain how a signal from outside the cell can be enter the cell.

8. Explain how stem cells are able to differentiate into any cell type.

9. Explain different types of stem cells and compare and contrast them.

10. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

11. Describe the theory of abiogenesis.

12. Explain which types of evidence were used to prove the theory of abiogenesis wrong.

13. Explain the structure of the cell membrane and what techniques can be sued to study it.

14. Explain how different types of substances are transported across cell membranes with diagrams.

15. Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells with diagrams.

16. Explain the cell theory, how to validate it and exceptions to it.

17. Explain how the electron microscope works.

18. Write the chemical structure of a single phospholipid.

19. Describe endocytosis.

20. Describe exocytosis.

21. Compare and contrast simple and facilitated diffusion.

22. Explain in great detail the steps of mitosis with diagrams.

23. Explain in great detail the steps of meiosis with diagrams.

Experiment 2: Calculating Mitotic Index using Plant Cells

Experiment 3: Investigating Water Potential

Experiment 4: Investigating Cell Membrane Permeability


Note: Keep in mind that teachers are expected to conduct activities, not simply lecture students. So time taken to complete a topic should keep this in mind.



Day1: Biochemistry and the Molecules of Life

Day2: Water

Day3:  Exploration activity

Day4: Carbohydrates

Day5: Carbohydrates (contd)

Day6:  Lab Work

Day7: Lipds

Day8: Lipids(contd)

Day9: Proteins

Day10: Proteins (contd)

Day11: Lab work

Day9: Nucliec Acids

Day10: Nucliec Acids (contd)

Day11: Conjugated Molecules

Day12: Exploration Work

Day 13: Revision

Day 14: Summative assessment

• Introduce biochemistry and describe the approximate chemical composition of protoplasm.

• Distinguish carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids as the four fundamental kinds of biological molecules.

•  Describe and draw sketches of the dehydration-synthesis and hydrolysis reactions for the making and breaking of macromolecule polymers.

• Define carbohydrates and classify them.

• Distinguish the properties and roles of monosaccharides, write their empirical formula and classify them.

• Compare the isomers and stereoisomers of glucose.

• Distinguish the properties and roles of disaccharides and describe glycosidic bond in the transport disaccharides.

• Explain how the properties of water (high polarity, hydrogen bonding, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, cohesion, hydrophobic exclusion, ionization and lower density of ice) make it the cradle of life.

• Distinguish the properties and roles of polysaccharides and relate them with the molecular structures of starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin.

• Justify that the laboratory-manufactured sweeteners are “left-handed” sugars and cannot be metabolized by the “right-handed” enzymes.

• Define proteins and amino acids and draw the structural formula of amino acid.

• Outline the synthesis and breakage of peptide linkages.

• Justify the significance of the sequence of amino acids through the example of sickle cell hemoglobin.

• Classify proteins as globular and fibrous proteins.

• List examples and the roles of structural and functional proteins.

• Define lipids and describe the properties and roles of acylglycerols, phospholipids, terpenes and waxes.

• Illustrate the molecular structure (making and breaking) of an acylglycerol, a phospholipid and a terpene.

• Evaluate steroids and prostaglandins as important groups of lipids and describe their roles in living organisms.

• Define nucleic acids and nucleotides.

• Describe the molecular level structure of nucleotide.

• Distinguish among the nitrogenous bases found in the nucleotides of nucleic acids.

• Outline the examples of a mononucleotide (ATP) and a dinucleotide (NAD).

• Illustrate the formation of phosphodiester bond.

• Explain the double helical structure of DNA as proposed by Watson and Crick.

• Define gene is a sequence of nucleotides as part of DNA, which codes for the formation of a polypeptide.

• Explain the general structure of RNA.

• Distinguish in term of structures and roles, the three types of RNA.

• Define conjugated molecules and describe the roles of common conjugated molecules i.e. glycolipids, glycoproteins, lipoproteins and nucleoproteins.

Experiment 9: Measuring Concentration of Glucose using a Calibration Curve



Central dogma genetics and inheritance

Day1: Nucleic Acids Revision

Day2: What is a Gene.

Day3: RNA in Detail

Day4: Mendelian Genetics

Day5:  Exploration Activity

Day6: Punnet Squares

Day 7:  Lab Work

Day8: Multiple Alleles, incomplete dominance and co-dominance

Day9: Blood Groups

Day10: Blood Groups (contd)

Day11:  Exploration Activity

Day12: Sex Linkage

Day13: Sex Linkage (contd)

Day14: Autosomal Linkage and Crossing over

Day15: Polygenic Inheritance and Epistasis

Day16: Polygenic Inheritance and Epistasis (contd)

Day17:  Lab Work

Day18:  Revision

Day 19: Revision

Day20: Summative Assessment

• Define nucleic acids and nucleotides.

• Describe the molecular level structure of nucleotide.

• Distinguish among the nitrogenous bases found in the nucleotides of nucleic acids.

• Outline the examples of a mononucleotide (ATP) and a dinucleotide (NAD).

• Illustrate the formation of phosphodiester bond.

• Explain the double helical structure of DNA as proposed by Watson and Crick.

• Define gene is a sequence of nucleotides as part of DNA, which codes for the formation of apolypeptide.

• Explain the general structure of RNA.

• Distinguish in term of structures and roles, the three types of RNA.

• Associate inheritance with the laws of Mendel.

• Explain the law of independent assortment, using a suitable example.

• Express limitations in the law and its usefulness.

• State the scope of independent assortment in variation.

• Evaluate that inheritance of genes and their mixing during fertilization is based on mathematical probabilities.

• Describe the exceptions to the Mendel’s laws of inheritance.

• Explain incomplete dominance and exemplify it through the inheritance of flower color in 4 O’ clock plant.

• Differentiate between incomplete dominance and co-dominance.

• Describe multiple alleles and state the alleles responsible for the trait of ABO blood groups.

• Explain the case where two alleles have equal dominance and through the genetics of human bloodgroup of AB.

• Name the various human blood group systems.

• Associate multiple alleles with the ABO blood group system.

• Investigate the reasons for O-ve individual as the Universal donor and AB +ve as the Universal recipient.

• Describe the occurrence of some other blood group systems.

• Associate the positive and negative blood groups with the presence and absence of Rh factor.

• Justify why Rh incompatibility could be a danger to the developing foetus and mother.

• Explain Erythroblastosis foetalis in the light of antigen-antibody reaction.

• Suggest measures to counter the problem of Erythroblastosis foetalis before it occurs.

• Explain the terms; polygenic and epistasis.

• Describe polygenic inheritance, using suitable examples from plants (grain color in wheat) and animals (skin color in man).

• List at least five polygenic traits discovered in humans.

• Relate polygenic inheritance with epistasis.

• Give one example of epistasis from mammals (coat color inheritance in Labrador retrievers) and one from plants (pigment phenotype in foxgloves) and justify modified Mendelian ratios.

• Describe the terms gene linkage and crossing over.

• Explain how gene linkage counters independent assortment and crossing-over modifies the progeny.

• Exemplify the concept of gene linkage by quoting the example of wing length and width of abdomen in Drosophila melanogaster.

• Suggest why linkage could be observed / evaluated only if the number of progeny is quite large.

• Explain the XX-XY mechanism of sex determination in Drosophila and mammals.

• Describe the XX-XO and ZZ-ZW sex determination systems and evaluate by studying the karyotype.

• Identify the difference between homogametic and heterogametic conditions in the karyotype of male and female humans.

• Identify male and female individuals from the karyotype of Drosophila and man.

• Solve the genetics problems related to XX-XY, XX-XO and ZZ-ZW sex determination.

• Describe the concept of sex-linkage.• Explain the inheritance of sex-linked traits (eye color) in Drosophila.

• Describe the sex-linked inheritance of male characters due to Y-chromosome and the effect of Hollandric genes.

• Describe sex-influenced and sex-limited traits with common examples from human genetics.

• Describe the X- linked disorders with reference to the patterns of inheritance.

• Name some of the sex-linked disorders of man and drosophila.

• Critically analyze the inheritance of Haemophilia, colour blindness and muscular dystrophy

• Evaluate incomplete and co-dominance as variations of Mendel’s research.

• Derive an idea to get alternatives of blood transfusion. (reference could be made to synthesized plasmaand serum).

• Justify why a recessive blood group allele of ‘i’ is more frequent in population.

• Justify blood donation as a service to suffering humanity.

• Name and explain the techniques employed for embryonic screening e.g., Amniocentesis.

• Suggest ways to save lives through the knowledge gained in this chapter.

• Describe how the field of genetics has progressed to a more applied science.

• Justify the effectiveness of some of the treatments of haemophilia

• Critically analyze the history of chromosomal theory with reference to Correns’ work.

• Critically analyze the experiments of T. H. Morgan in support of the above-mentioned theory.

• Annotate the detailed structure of a chromosome.

• Describe the concept of gene and gene locus.

• Explain the concept of alleles as the alternative forms of a gene.

• Narrate the experimental work of Griffith and Hershey-Chase, which proved that DNA is the hereditary material.

• Describe the three models proposed about the mechanism of DNA replication.

• Narrate the work of Meselson and Stahl to justify the semi-conservative replication as the correct method of replication.

• Describe the events of the process of DNA replication.

• Explain DNA stability and variability as two characters of the replicating DNA molecule.

• Describe the central dogma of gene expression.

• Define gene and genetic code.

• Describe the characteristics of genetic code (universal, triplet, non-overlapping, degenerate, punctuated).

• Differentiate between the terms genetic code and codon.

• Explain the mechanism of transcription.

• Explain why the length of transcribed mRNA molecule (in Eukaryotes) shortens as it enters the cytoplasm for translation.

• Describe the mechanism of protein synthesis.

• State the difference between protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

• Suggest possible ways in which the synthesized protein can be used within or outside a cell that synthesized it.

• State the importance of the regulation of gene expression.

• Describe the negative control of gene expression by repressor proteins.

• Describe the positive control of gene expression by activator proteins.

• Relate gene expression with introns and exons.

• Define mutation and identify various sources of mutation.

• Differentiate between natural and induced mutations and mutagens.

• Justify that most mutations are harmful.

• Rationalize that mutations might be a contributing factor towards evolution.

• Describe the symptoms, causes and possible available treatments of some of the chromosomal mutations. (Down’s, Klinefelter’s and Turner’s syndrome)

• Describe the symptoms, causes and possible available treatments of some of the gene mutations.

Experiment 16: Separating DNA fragments - gel electrophoresis



Midterm Revision






Day1: Introduction to Enzymes and Enzyme action Models

Day2: Co-factors and Enzyme Catalysed Reactions

Day3: Exploration Activity

Day4: Effect of Temparature and pH on Enzyme Activity

Day5: Effect of Substrate concentration and Enzyme concentration

Day6: Lab Work

Day 7: Lab Work

Day8: Enzyme inhibittion

Day9: Enzyme inhibition (contd)

Day 10:  Exploration activity

Day11: Types of Enzymes

Day12: Revision 

Day13: Summative Asessment

• Describe the structure of enzyme.

• Explain the role and component parts of the active site of an enzyme.

• Differentiate among the three types of co-factors i.e. in organic ions, prosthetic group and co-enzymes, with examples.

• Explain the mechanism of enzyme action through Induced Fit Model, comparing it with Lock and Key Model.

• Justify why the Induced Fit model is a better model for enzymes compared to the lock and Key model.

• Explain how an enzyme catalyzes specific reactions.

• Define energy of activation and explain through graph how an enzyme speeds up a reaction by lowering the energy of activation.

• Describe the effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme action

• Compare the optimum temperatures of enzymes of human and thermophilic bacteria.

• Describe the range of pH at which human enzymes function

• Compare the optimum pH of different enzymes like trypsin, pepsin, pepane.

• Describe how the concentration of enzyme affects the rate of enzyme action.

• Explain the effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme action

• Describe enzymatic inhibition, its types and its significance.

• Name the molecules which act as inhibitors.

• Categorize inhibitors into competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.

• Explain feedback inhibition.

• Describe why it is easy to inhibit enzymes with deep, well-defined pockets and hard to inhibit enzymes having only smooth structural surfaces with no pockets.

• Classify enzymes on the basis of the reactions catalyzed (oxido-reductases, transferases, hydrolases, isomerases, and ligases).

• Classify enzymes on the basis of the substrates they use (lipases, diastase, amylase, proteases etc).

Experiment 1: Rate of an Enzyme Controlled Reaction




Day1: Metabolic Processes

Day2:  Exploration Activity

Day3: Anaerobic Respiration

Day4: Aerobic Respiration

Day5: Aerobic Respiration (contd)

Day6: Aerobic Respiration (contd)

Day 7:  Exploration Activity

Day8: Lab work

Day9: Lab work

Day10: Introduction to Photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigments

Day11: Light Dependent Reactions

Day12: Light Dependent Reactions (contd)

Day13: Light Independent Reaction

Day14: PhotoRespiration

Day15: C-4 Photosynthesis

Day16: Revision

Day17: Summative Assessment

• Explain the role of light in photosynthesis

• Identify the two general kinds of photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls)

• Describe the roles of photosynthetic pigments in the absorption and conversion of light energy

• Differentiate between the absorption spectra of chlorophyll ‘a’ and ‘b’

• Describe the arrangement of photosynthetic pigments in the form of photosystem-I and II.

• State the role of CO2 as one of the raw materials of photosynthesis.

• Explain, narrating the experimental work done, the role of water in photosynthesis.

• Describe the events of non-cyclic photophosphorylation and outline the cyclic photophosphorylation.

• Explain the Calvin cycle (the regeneration of RuBP should be understood in outline only.

• Explain the process of anaerobic respiration in terms of glycolysis and conversion of pyruvate into lacticacid or ethanol.

• Outline (naming the reactants and products of each step of) the events of glycolysis.Illustrate the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA.

• Outline (naming the reactants and products of each step of) the steps of Krebs cycle.

• Explain the passage of electron through electron transport chain.

• Describe chemiosmosis and relate it with electron transport chain.

• Explain the substrate-level phosphorylation during which exergonic reactions are coupled with thesynthesis of ATP.

• Justify the importance of PGAL in photosynthesis and respiration.

• Outline the cellular respiration of proteins and fats and correlate these with that of glucose.

• Define photorespiration and outline the events occurring through it.

• Rationalize how the disadvantageous process of photorespiration evolved.

• Explain the effect of temperature on the oxidative activity of RuBP carboxylase.

• Outline the process of C 4 photosynthesis as an adaptation evolved in some plants to deal with the problem of photorespiration.

Experiment 5: Chromatography of Photosynthetic Pigments

Experiment 6: Dehydrogenase Activity in Chloroplasts

Experiment 7: Respiration in Single Celled Organisms

Experiment 15: Photosynthesis and the Hill reaction

Experiment 18: Investigate rate of respiration

Experiment 23: Different wavelengths of light and photosynthesis




Day1: Species, Communites and Ecosystems

Day2: Trophic levels and Flow of Energy

Day3: Succession of Ecosystems

Day4: Exploration acitivity

Day5: biogeochemical cycles

Day6: Carbon cycle and Greenhouse effect

Day7: Water cycles and Coral reef health

Day 8:Exploration activity

Day9: Nitrogen Cycle

Day10: Problems with rapid Human growth

Day11:  Revision

Day12:  Summative Asessment

• Define species and list their characteristics.

• Distinguish between the various modes of nutrition different species possess.

• Define a community and list its characteristics.

• Define a population and list its characteristics.

• Describe how light energy is converted into chemical energy.

• Outline why energy is lost from an ecosystem.

• Define trophic levels.

• Describe why energy is lost between trophic levels.

• Explain the greenhouse effect.

• Describe the greenhouse gases and their harmful effects on the environment.

• Describe why coral reefs are used as a barometer for the health of an aquatic ecosystem.

• Define biogeochemical cycles and locate the primary reservoirs of the chemicals in these cycles.

• Describe water cycle in detail.

• Define the terms aquifers and water table.

• Describe nitrogen cycle in detail.

• Define the terms of nitrogen-fixation, nitrification, de-nitrification and ammonification.

• Describe productivity in terms of gross primary productivity and net primary productivity.

• Explain the flow of energy in successive trophic levels.

• Interpret the pyramids of number, biomass and energy.

• Define ecological succession as the process through which ecosystems change from simple to complex.

• Describe primary and secondary succession.

• Differentiate between xerarch and hydrarch succession.

• Explain the xerarch succession on a bare rock starting from the small pockets of lichens to the vegetations of flowering plants.

• Describe characteristics of a population, such as growth, density, distribution, carrying capacity, minimum/viable size.

• Explain, using demographic principles, problems related to the rapid growth of human populations and the effects of that growth on future generations (e.g., relate the carrying capacity of the Earth to the growth of populations and their consumption of resources).

Experiment 10: Effect of Different Variables on Species Distribution

Experiment 14: Ecology of a habitat

Experiment 27: Effect of one abiotic factor on species distribution and morphology




Day1: Creationism vs Evolution

Day2: Evidences for Evolution

Day3: Exploration Activity

Day4: Convergent and Divergent Evolution

Day5: Lamarckian Evolution

Day6: Darwin and Theory of Natural Selection


Day7: History of the Theory of Evolution

Day8: Allele Frequency and Hardy Weinberg Principle

Day9:  exploration activity

Day10: Genetic Drift and Speciation

Day11:  Revision

Day12: Summative activity

• Describe creationism and the theory of evolution as two contradictory ideas.

• Explain how biogeography provides an evidence for evolution.

• Describe the evidences of evolution that come from paleontology, comparative anatomy and molecular biology.

• Differentiate between convergent and divergent evolution on the basis of inheritance of the homologous and analogous structures.

• Describe the theories that have been put forwarded about the mechanism of evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotes

• Justify Lamarck as an early proponent of evolution.

• Describe the theory of inheritance of acquired characters, as proposed by Lamarck.

• Outline the steps of the evolution of the giraffe, as illustrated in Lamarckism.

• State the drawbacks in Lamarckism.

• Briefly describe the observations Darwin made during his voyage on HMS Beagle.

• Explain the theory of natural selection as proposed by Darwin.

• Describe the ideas of Charles Lyell, James Hutton and Thomas Malthus that contributed in the early development of Darwinism.

• Describe the role of Alfred Wallace in motivating Darwin to publish the theory of natural selection.

• Justify, on the grounds that both Wallace’s and Darwin’s papers were published in the Journal of the proceedings of the Linnaean Society, why the theory was attributed to Darwin.

• Describe the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg theorem and relate these to the factors that change the allelic frequencies of the population.

• Explain the concept of genetic drift (neutral selection).

• Define the concept of speciation and explain the mechanisms of speciation (allopatric, parapatric andsympatric speciation).



Prokaryoes, Protoctist & Fungi

Day1: Prokaryotes, Fungi and Protoctists

Day2: Types of Prokaryotes and Their phylogenetic positions

Day3:  Lab Work

Day4:  Exploration Activity

Day5: Features and Habitates of Bacteria

Day6: Bacterial Cell Wall and Gram positive and Negative Bacteria

Day7: Motily, Flagellum and Endospore formation

Day8: Trophism in bacteria

Day9: Autotrophic bacteria

Day10: Focus on Cyanobacteria

Day11: Bacterial Growth, Reproduction and Recombination

Day12: Lab Work

Day13: Exploration activity

Day14: Normal Flora and Symbiosis

Day15: Roles of Bacteria

Day16: Roles of bacteria: Focus on Bacterial Disease

Day17: Salient Features of Protoctists

Day18: Types of Fungi

Day19: Yeast

Day 20: Revision

Day21: Revision

Day22:  Summative Assessments

• Outline the taxonomic position of prokaryotes in terms of domains archaea and bacteria and in terms of kingdom monera.

• Explain the phylogenetic position of prokaryotes.

• Justify the occurrence of bacteria in the widest range of habitats.

• List the diagnostic features of the major groups of bacteria.

• Justify why cyanobacteria are considered as the most prominent of the photosynthetic bacteria

• Describe detailed structure and chemical composition of bacterial cell wall and other coverings.

• Compare cell wall differences in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

• Explain the great diversity of shapes and sizes found in bacteria.

• Justify the endospore formation in bacteria to withstand unfavorable conditions.

• Explain motility in bacteria.

• Describe structure of bacterial flagellum.

• Describe genomic organization of bacteria.

• Classify bacteria on the basis of methods of obtaining energy and carbon.

• Describe autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition in bacteria.

• Explain the pigment composition in cyanobacteria.

• Differentiate between the photosynthesis mechanisms in cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic bacteria.

• List the phases in the growth of bacteria.

• Describe different methods of reproduction in bacteria.

• Explain how mutations and genetic recombinations lend variability to bacterial reproduction.

• Describe bacteria as recyclers of nature.Outline the ecological and economic importance of bacteria.

• Explain the use of bacteria in research and technology.

• Describe important bacterial diseases in man e.g. cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis, and pneumonia; emphasizing their symptoms, causative bacteria, treatments, and preventative measures.

• Describe important bacterial diseases in plants in terms of spots, blights, soft rots, wilts, and galls; emphasizing their symptoms, causative bacteria, and preventative measures.

• Define the term normal flora.

• List the important bacteria that make the normal bacterial flora residing in the oral cavity, respiratory andurinogenital tracts and large intestine of man.

• Describe the benefits of the bacterial flora of humans.

• List the chemical and physical methods used to control harmful bacteria.

• Explain protists as a diverse group of eukaryotes that has polyphyletic origin and defined only byexclusion from other groups.

• Describe the salient features with examples of protozoa, algae, myxomycota and oomycota as the majorgroups of protists.

• Justify how protists are important for humans.

• Classify fungi into zygomycota, ascomycota and basidiomycota and give the diagnostic features of eachgroup.

• Explain yeast as unicellular fungi that are used for baking and brewing and are also becoming veryimportant for genetic research.

• Name a few fungi from which antibiotics are obtained.

• Explain the mutualism established in mycorrhizae and lichen associations.

• Give examples of edible fungi.

• Describe the ecological impact of fungi causing decomposition and recycling of materials.

• Explain the pathogenic role of fungi.

Experiment 24: Rate of growth of microorganisms in culture



Acellular Life

Day1: Viruses and the Boundary of Between Living and non Living

Day2: Structures of different Viruses

Day3: Viral Parasitism, reproduction and Survival

Day4: Lytic vs Lysogenic Life cycles

Day5: Exploration Activity

Day6: Viral Diseases

Day7: HIV and AIDS

Day8: HIV and AIDS (contd)

Day9: Viruses and Genetic Engineering

Day10: Viruses and Vaccines

Day11: Limitations of Vaccines

Day12: Exploration Activity

Day13: Prions and Viriods

Day14: Social cultural and Economic impact of Diseases

Day15: Revision

Day16: Summative Assessment

• Justify the status of viruses among living and non-living things.

• Trace the history of viruses since their discovery.

• Classify viruses on the bases of their hosts and structure.

• Explain the structure of a model bacteriophage, flu virus and HIV.

• Justify why a virus must have a host cell to parasitize in order to complete its life cycle.

• Explain how a virus survives inside a host cell, protected from the immune system.

• Determine the method a virus employs to survive/ pass over unfavorable conditions when it does nothave a host to complete the life cycle.

• Describe the Lytic and Lysogenic life cycles of a virus.

• Outline the usage of bacteriophage in genetic engineering.

• Explain the life cycle of HIV.

• Justify the name of the virus i.e., “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” by establishing T-helper cells asthe basis of immune system.

• Reason out the specificity of HIV on its host cells.

• List the symptoms of AIDS.

• Explain opportunistic diseases that may attack an AIDS victim.

• Describe the treatments available for AIDS.

• List some common control measures against the transmission of HIV.

• Describe the causative agent, symptoms, treatment and prevention of the following viral diseases:hepatitis, herpes, polio and leaf curl virus disease of cotton.

• List the sources of transmission for each of the above-mentioned diseases.

• Describe the structure of prions and viroids.

• List the diseases caused by prions and viroids.TS Connections

• Interpret how viral infections cause global economic loss.

• Justify how the invention of electron microscope revolutionized the science of microscopic organisms.

• Suggest ways to rid human civilization of viruses.

• Correlate the social and cultural values of a country with the prevalence of AIDS.

• Describe the limitations of the vaccine for the common cold / flu virus







Day1: Plants and Nutrition

Day2: Transpiration and Gas exchange

Day3: Lab Work

Day4: Structure of Xylem and movement of Water

Day 5:  Exploration activity

Day6: Movement of Water (contd)

Day 7: Phloem and Movement of Sugars

Day 8: Osmotic Adjustments and Support of plants

Day 9: Lab work

Day10: Plant Growth

Day11 : Effect of Temperature and Photoperiodism

Day12:  Revision

Day13: Summative Assessment

• List the macro and micronutrients of plants highlighting the role of each nutrient.

• State the examples of carnivorous plant.Understanding

• Explain the role of stomata and palisade tissue in the exchange of gases in plants.

• Relate transpiration with gas exchange in plants.

• Describe the structure of xylem vessel elements, sieve tube elements, companion cells, trachieds andrelate their structures with functions.

• Explain the movement of water between plant cells, and between the cells and their environment interms of water potential.

• Explain the movement of water through roots in terms of symplast, apoplast and vacuolar pathways.

• Explain the movement of water in xylem through TACT mechanism.• Describe the mechanisms involved in the opening and closing of stomata.

• Explain the movement of sugars within plants.

• Define osmotic adjustment.

• Explain movement of water into or out of cell in isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic conditions.

• Describe osmotic adjustments in hydrophytic (marine and freshwater), xerophytic and mesophytic plants.

• Explain the osmotic adjustments of plants in saline soils.

• List the adaptations in plants to cope with low and high temperatures.• Explain the turgor pressure and explain its significance in providing support to herbaceous plants.

• Describe the structure of supporting tissues in plants.

• Define growth and explain primary and secondary growth in plants.

• Describe the role of apical meristem and lateral meristem in primary and secondary growth.

• Explain how annual rings are formed.• Explain influence of apical meristem on the growth of lateral shoots.

• Explain the role of important plant growth regulators.

• Explain the types of movement in plants in response to light, force of gravity, touch and chemicals.

• Define photoperiodism.

• Classify plants on the basis of photoperiodism and give examples.Describe the mechanism of photoperiodism with reference to the mode of action of phytochrome.

• Explain the role of low temperature treatment on flower production especially to biennials andperennials.

Experiment 22: Environmental conditions and water uptake

Experiment 12: Investigating plant mineral deficiencies

Experiment 21: Sucrose concentration and pollen tube growth

Experiment 25: Gibberellin on the production of Amylase






Final Revision

Final Revision

Final Revision






Human Physiology

Day1: Gaseous Exchange

Day2: Gasesous Exchange (contd)

Day3: Respiratory infections

Day4:  Lab work

Day5: Smoking and respiratory Disorders

Day 6:  Exploration activity

Day7: Homeostasis

Day8: Osmoregulation

Day9: Urinary System

Day10: Structure of the Kidney and Nephron

Day11: Workings of the Nephron

Day12: Working of the Nephron (contd)

Day13: Exploration Activity

Day14: Kidney stones and UTI's

Day15: Dialysis and Kidney Transplants

Day16: Thermoregulation

Day17: Thermoregulation (contd)

Day18: The skeleton System

Day19: The skeleton system (contd)

Day20: Revision 

Day21: Summative Assessment

• Define the respiratory surface and list its properties

• Describe the main structural features and functions of the components of human respiratory system.

• Describe the ventilation mechanism in humans.

• State lung volumes and capacities.

• Explain how breathing is controlled.

• Describe the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide through blood.

• Describe the role of respiratory pigments.

• State the causes, symptoms and treatment of upper Respiratory Tract Infections (sinusitis, otitis media)and lower Respiratory Tract Infections (pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis).

• Describe the disorders of lungs (emphysema and lung cancer).

• List the effects of smoking on respiratory system

• Describe three elements i.e. receptors, control center and effectors which operate homeostatic mechanisms.

• Relate the homeostatic mechanisms with the negative and positive feedback systems.

• Differentiate between osmoconformers and osmoregulators.

• Define osmoregulation.

• Explain the problems faced by osmoregulators.

• Explain the different methods of osmoregulation found in freshwater, marine water and terrestrial

• List various nitrogenous compounds excreted during the process of excretion.

• Explain the nature of excretory products in relation to habitat.

• Explain different organs of urinary system.

• Describe the structure of kidney and relate it with its function.

• Explain the detailed structure of nephron.

• Explain the processes of glomerular filtration, selective re-absorption and tubular secretion as the events in kidney functioning.

• Explain that concentration of urine is regulated by counter-current and hormonal mechanisms.

• Justify the functioning of kidneys as both excretion and osmoregulation.

• Compare the function of two major capillary beds in kidneys i.e. glomerular capillaries and peritubular capillaries.

• List urinary tract infections and the bacteria responsible.

• Explain the causes and treatments of kidney stones.

• Outline the causes of kidney failure.

• Explain in detail the mechanism and problems related to dialysis.

• Describe the principles and the problems associated with kidney transplant.

• Define theremoregulation and explain its needs.

• Classify animals on the basis of the source of body’s heat i.e. ectotherms and endotherms.

• Classify the animals on the bases of the ability to thermoregulate i.e. poikilotherms and homeotherms.

• Describe the regulatory strategies in man for thermoregulation.

• Describe the structure of bone and compare it with that of cartilage.

• Explain the functions of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes.

• Identify the main divisions of human skeleton.

• List the bones of appendicular and axial skeleton of man.

• Describe three types of joints i.e. fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints and synovial joints and give example of each.

• Describe the disorders of human skeleton (disc-slip, spondylosis, sciatica, arthritis) and their causes.

• State different types of fractures (simple, compound and complicated) and describe the repair process of simple fractures.

• Describe the injuries in joints (dislocation and sprain) and their first aid treatment.

• Describe the first-aid treatment for fracture.

• Compare smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and skeletal muscles.

• Explain the ultra-structure of the skeletal muscle.

• Explain the sliding filaments model of muscle contraction.

• Describe the action of antagonistic muscles in the movement of knee joint.

• Explain muscle fatigue, cramps and tetany.

• Differentiate between tetanus and muscle tetany.

• Describe the mechanical and chemical digestion in oral cavity.

• Explain swallowing and peristalsis.

• Describe the structure of stomach and relate each component with the mechanical and chemical digestion in stomach.

• Explain the role of nervous system and gastrin hormone on the secretion of gastric juice.

• Describe the major actions carried out on food in the three regions of the small intestine.

• Explain the absorption of digested products from the small intestine lumen to the blood capillaries and lacteals of the villi.

• Describe the component parts of large intestine with their respective roles.

• Correlate the involuntary reflex for egestion in infants and the voluntary control in adults.

• Explain the storage and metabolic role of liver.

• Describe composition of bile and relate the constituents with respective roles.

• Outline the structure of pancreas and explain its function as an exocrine gland.

• Relate the secretion of bile and pancreatic juice with the secretin hormone.

• State the location of heart in the body and define the role of pericardium.

• Describe the structure of the walls of heart and rationalize the thickness of the walls of each chamber.

• Describe the flow of blood through heart as regulated by the valves.

• State the phases of heartbeat.

• Explain the role of SA node, AV node and Purkinji fibers in controlling the heartbeat.

• List the principles and uses of Electrocardiogram.

• Describe the detailed structure of arteries, veins and capillaries.

• Describe the role of arterioles in vasoconstriction and vasodilation.

• Describe the role of precapillary sphincters in regulating the flow of blood through capillaries.

• Trace the path of the blood through the pulmonary and systemic circulation (coronary, hepatic-portal and renal circulation).

• Compare the rate of blood flow through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins.

• Define blood pressure and explain its periods of systolic and diastolic pressure.

• State the role of baroreceptors and volume receptors in regulating the blood pressure.

• Define the term thrombus and differentiate between thrombus and embolus.

• Identify the factors causing atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis.

• Categorize Angina pectoris, heart attack, and heart failure as the stages of cardiovascular disease development.

• State the congenital heart problem related to the malfunctioning of cardiac valves.

• Describe the principles of angiography.

• Outline the main principles of coronary bypass, angioplasty and open-heart surgery.

• Define hypertension and describe the factors that regulate blood pressure and can lead to hypertension and hypotension.

• List the changes in life styles that can protect man from hypertension and cardiac problems.

• Describe the formation, composition and function of intercellular fluid.

• Compare the composition of intercellular fluid with that of lymph.

• State the structure and role of lymph capillaries, lymph vessels and lymph trunks.

• Describe the role of lymph vessels (lacteals) present in villi.

• Describe the functions of lymph nodes and state the role of spleen as containing lymphoid tissue.






Neurosciences and the Endocrine System

Day1: The Nervous System

Day2: Types of Neurons

Day3: Resting potential and Action Potential

Day4: Myelinated and Non-Myelinated Neurons

Day5:  Exploration Activity

Day6: Effector Muscles and how they operate

Day7: Receptors and Generation of Nerve Impulse

Day8: Synaptic Transmission

Day9: Excitatory and Inhibotory neurotransmitters

Day10: Major Divisions of the Brain

Day 11: Exploration activity

Day12:  Lab work

Day13: Lab work

Day14: Brain and Spinal Cord

Day15: Autonomic Nervous System

Day16: Drugs

Day17: Drug Tolerance and Addiction

Day18: Withdrawal

Day19: exploration activity

Day20: Nervous system Disorders

Day21: Revision

Day22: Revision

Day23: Summative Assessment 

•Recognize receptors as transducers sensitive to various stimuli.

• Trace the path of a message transmitted to the CNS for processing.

• Identify the three neurons (sensory, intermediate, motor) involved in nervous transmission.

• Identify muscles and glands as the effectors.

• Describe the detailed structure of a sensory neuron, associative and a motor neuron and relate the specialization in structures with functions.

• Differentiate between myelinated and non-myelinated neurons.

• Explain the function of the three types of neurons with the help of a reflex arc.

• Define nerve impulse.

• Describe the generation and transmission of nerve impulse.

• Name the factors responsible for the resting membrane potential of neuron.

• Evaluate from a graph the phenomena of polarization, depolarization and hyperpolarisation of membrane.

• Compare the velocities of nerve impulse in the axon membrane and in the synaptic cleft.

• Describe the role of local circuits in saltatory conduction of nerve impulse.

• Describe the structure of synapse.

• Explain synaptic transmission of nerve impulse.

• Classify neurotransmitters as inhibitory and excitatory and list some common examples.

• Identify the main components of the nervous system.

• Explain briefly the functions of major divisions of brain.

• Describe the architecture of human brain and compare its sectional view with that of the spinal cord.

• Describe cranial and spinal nerves in man.

• Explain the structure, types and functions of autonomic nervous system.

• Explain the structure and functioning of the receptors for smell, taste and touch / pain.

• Define narcotic drugs as agents that interact with the normal nervous activity.

• Compare the use and abuse of drugs with respect to heroine, Cannabis, nicotine, alcohol and inhalants like nail polish remover and glue.

• Define and explain the terms; drug addiction and drug tolerance with reference to caffeine and nicotine.

• Associate the effects of drug addiction and tolerance with the functioning of nervous system.

• Describe why fentanyl is so harmful for the human body.

• Describe how pain medicines can reduce or numb pain in the human body.

• Describe why certain pain medications are addictive.

• Describe withdrawal symptoms of alcohol.

• Classify nervous disorders into vascular, infectious, structural, functional and degenerative disorders

• Describe the causes, symptoms and treatment one type of each category of disorders outlined above (e.g., stroke as vascular, meningitis as infectious, brain tumor as structural, headache as functional, and Alzheimer disease as degenerative disorder).

• Explain the principles of the important diagnostic tests for nervous disorders i.e. EEG, CT scan and MRI.

• State the role of hormones as chemical messengers.

• Describe the chemical nature of hormones and correlate it with important hormones.

• Trace the path of the chemical message from its release from the endocrine gland to its action at the target site.

• Explain the two modes of hormone action at the cells of target site.

• Locate the following endocrine glands in human body; pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, gonads.

• Name the hormonal secretions of the above-mentioned glands.

• Outline the major functions of the hormones of above mentioned glands and also relate the problems associated with the imbalance of these hormones.

• Explain the neurosecretory role of hypothalamus.

• Describe the functions of the hormones secreted by the endocrine tissue other than the mentioned above.

• Outline the concept of Feedback mechanism of hormones.

• Describe positive feedback with reference to Oxytocin and negative feedback with reference to Insulin and Glucagon.

Experiment 8: Investigating Simple Animal Responses

Experiment 11: Effect of Caffeine on Heart Rate in Daphnia

Experiment 20: Habituation to a stimulus







Day1: Physical and Chemical Barriers for Pathogens

Day2:  Exploration activity

Day3: Key players of the immune system

Day4: Innate immune Response

Day5: Innate Immune Response (contd)

Day6:  Lab work

Day7: Adaptive Immune Response

Day8: T-Cell mediated Response

Day9: B-Cell Mediated Response

Day10: Exploration activity

Day11: Types of Immunity


Day13: Allergies and Autoimmune Diseases

Day14: Graft vs Host disease

Day15: Revision

Day16:  Revision

Day18: Summative Assessment

• Describe the structural features of human skin that make it impenetrable barrier against invasion by microbes.

• Explain how oil and sweat glands within the epidermis inhibit the growth and also kill microorganisms.

• Recognize the role of the acids and enzymes of the digestive tract in killing the bacteria present in food.

• State the role of the ciliated epithelium of nasal cavity and of the mucous of the bronchi and bronchiolesin trapping air borne microorganisms.

• Describe the role of macrophages and neutrophils in killing bacteria.

• Explain how the Natural Killer (NK) cells kill the cells that are infected by microbes and also kill cancer cells.

• State how the proteins of the complement system kill bacteria and how the interferons inhibit the ability of viruses to infect cells.

• State the events of the inflammatory response as one of the most generalized nonspecific defenses.

• Outline the release of pyrogens by microbes and their effect on hypothalamus to boost the body’s temperature.

• List the ways the fever kills microbes.

• Categorize the immune system that provides specific defense and acts as the most powerful means of resisting infection.

• Identify monocytes, T-cells and B-cells as the components of the immune system.

• State the inborn and acquired immunity as the two basic types of immunity.

• Differentiate the two types of acquired immunity (active and passive immunity).

• Identify the process of vaccination as a means to develop active acquired immunity.

• Describe the roles T-cells in cell-mediated immunity.

• Describe the role of B-cells in antibody-mediated immunity.

• Draw the structural model of an antibody molecule.

• Explain the role of memory cells in long-term immunity.

• Define allergies and correlate the symptoms of allergies with the release of histamines.

• Describe the autoimmune diseases.

• Describe the role of T-cells and B-cells in transplant rejections.Describe the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and justify how this accomplishment revolutionized many aspects of biological research.















Day1: Cancer and its types

Day2: Mutations and Cancer Spread

Day3: Exploration Activity

Day4: Cancer Genomes

Day5: Cancer Screenings and Treatments

Day6: Lab Work

Day7: Alzheimers

Day8: Alzheimers Treatment

Day9: Preventative measures against Alzheimers

Day10: Exploration Activity

Day11: Covid-19 Pandemic

Day12: Mutations and Covid19 Variants

Day13: Modes of Actions of Covid-19 Vaccinations

Day14: Diabetes And genetic Factors of type1 and type2 diabetes

Day15:  Lab work

Day16: Diet and Exercise and its affects on diabetes

Day17: Drugs against Type1 and type2 Diabetes


Day18: Lupus

Day19: Lupus Treatments

Day20:  Revision

Day21:  Summative Assessment


• Define cancer

• List how having cancer kills a human being.

• Describe how a cancer spreads through the body using blood vessels.

• Describe how a cancer spreads through the body using the lymphatic system.

• Explain how mutations can make a cancer more aggressive

• Describe why it is important to map the genome of a tumor before beginning cancer treatment

• Explain why it is better to classify a tumor based off of its accumulated genetic mutations instead of its physical location.

• Describe immuno-oncology with examples of some recent approved immune-oncology drugs. Describe how smoking increases the risk of cancer.

• Describe how screening is important for breast and prostate cancer.


• Define Alzheimers.

• Describe the current understanding of how Alzheimers begins.

• Describe how Alzheimers progresses. Explain any current treatments for Alzheimers and their mechanisms of action.

• Describe how exercise could play a role in reducing the risk of Alzheimers.

• Describe how good sleep could play a role in reducing the risk of Alzheimers.

• Describe how a good diet could play a role in reducing the risk of Alzheimers.


• Describe how the Covid-19 virus is suspected of entering humans from animals

• Describe Covid-19 virus’s mechanism of action which causes respiratory problems.

• Describe how certain mutations enhanced the virulence of the Covid-19 virus.

• Describe long covid and its lasting effects on patients. Describe how mRNA vaccines protect against Covid-19.

• Describe how Russia’s Sputnik-V vaccine protects against Covid-19.

• Compare and contrast diabetes type I and II.

• Describe the harmful effects on the body of diabetes on the human body.

• Describe the role of genetics in diabetes. Describe how exercise can help in reducing the risk of diabetes.

• Describe how exercise can help reduce the severity of diabetes.

• Describe how a good diet can help in reducing the risk of diabetes.

• Describe how good diet can help reduce the severity of diabetes.

• Explain the mechanism of action of drug treatments that doctors prescribe for diabetes I.

• Explain the mechanism of action of drug treatments that doctors prescribe for diabetes II.


• Describe lupus.

• Explain its mechanism of action.

• Explain the mechanism of action of drug treatments that doctors prescribe for lupus.






Pharmacological Drugs

Day1: Types of Medicinal Drugs

Day2: Drug discovery and Development

Day3:  Lab Work

Day4: Classes of Drugs against HIV

Day5: Drugs therapy against HepC

Day 6: Exploration Activity

Day7: Exploration Activity

Day8: Monoclonal Antibodies and Treatment

Day8: Fecal Transplants

Day9: Revision

Day10: Summative Assessment

• Explain the drug discovery and development process.

• Explain the different classes of drugs work against HIV.

• Explain the mechanism of action of Sovaldi whcih cures Hepatitis C.

• Describe why in Harvoni, Sovaldi is combined with Gilead's ledipasvir (an NS5A inhibitor).

• Compare and contrast Harvoni with Sovaldi

• Describe advantages of monoclonal antibodies enjoy compared to other drug classes.

• Explain the mechanism of action of rituximab (Mabthera).

• Explain the term precision medicine.

• Explain the different classes of drugs work against HIV.

• Explain the mechanism of action of Sovaldi which cures Hepatitis C.

• Describe why in Harvoni, Sovaldi is combined with Gilead's ledipasvir (an NS5A inhibitor).

• Explain the mechanism of action of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy for leukemia.

• Describe fecal transplant and name the condition it is used to treat.

• Explain the drug discovery and development process.

• Explain the clinical trials approval process for any new drug candidate.

Experiment 13: Antimicrobial properties of plants

Experiment 17: Effect of different antibiotics






Biostatistics and Data presentation

Day1: Types of Statistical Tests

Day2: Standard Deviations and Error Bars

Day3: Exploration Activity

Day4: Lab Work

Day5: Figuring out the Right test

Day6: Experimental Design

Day7:  Revision

Day8: Summative Assessment

• Sketch error bars based off of range or standard deviation for a given set of data on a bar chart.

• Deduce and sketch the appropriate type of figure or chart for a given set of data and/or experiment (bar chart, pie chart, x-y axis data figure etc).

• Make the appropriate chart in Microsoft excel with proper title, labelled axes, legend, axes units.

• Design an appropriate experiment with a control group and dependent, independent and control variables.

• Choose, implement and correctly represent the results of the correct statistical test given the nature of the data and experiment from among the following:



Turkey Test


R-squared value

Welch test

Experiment 26: Effect of different sampling methods on estimates of the size of a population






Climate Change

Day1: Greenhouse gases and climate change

Day2: Effect of climate change on food security

Day3:  Exploration Activity

Day: 4Effects of Carbon sinks on Climate change

Day 5: Exploration Activity

Day6: Solar light reflections and Climate change

Day7: Lab Work

Day8: Aftermath climate change

Day 9: Revision

Day 10: Summative assessment

• Describe how climate change impacts agriculture and thus food security.

• Describe how climate change can impact ocean biology in terms of its temperature and acidity as well as the resulting harmful effects.

• Explain why carbon sink conservation and enhancement mitigate climate change.

• Describe how increasing the albedo of surface crop plants could help in mitigating global surface increases.

• Name species that have gone extinct due to climate change.






Advanced Biotechnology

Day1: Vertical Food Farms

Day2: Lab Grown Organs

Day 3:  Exploration activity

Day3: Anti-aging


Day 6: Exploration activity

Day7: Revision

Day 8: summative Assessment

• Describe how vertical food farms (soil free) work.

• Compare and contrast the advantages of vertical food farms with general agricultural practices prevalent in Pakistan.

• Explain the current state of efforts regarding growing organs in labs to be transplanted into human bodies.

• Explain the current research into anti-aging medications and treatments.

• Explain the potential of CRISPR in treating genetic diseases.






Selected topics

Day1: Biological Warfare

Day2:  Exploration activity

Day2: Genomics, Transcriptomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics

Day3: Synthetic Biology

Day 4: Revision

Day 5:  Summative Assessment

• Explain how biological warfare occurs with examples.

• Describe how modern day biological weapons could work.

• Describe how biodefenses could work to protect from biological warfare with examples.

• Examine the hype behind the comics “genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics metabolomics”, to what extent is it valid or overblown?

• Explain synthetic biology with examples






Final Revision

Final Revision

Final Revision