Physics 1112  Theory

IB DP Curriculum 2016 
NCC Curriculum 2023 
Guidance on NCC 2023 SLOs Elaboration on the extent of depth of study required for the SLOs and assessment expectations 
Essential Questions 
Rationale 
Questions for Feedback from Stakeholders 

How are Broad Topics Conceptualised 
1. Measurement 2. Vectors and Equilibrium 3. Forces and Motion 4. Work and Energy 5. Rotational and Circular Motion 6. Fluid Dynamics 7. Oscillations 8. Waves 9. Physical Optics 10. Thermodynamics 11. Electrostatics 12. Current Electricity 13. Electromagnetism 14. Electromagnetic Induction 15. Alternating Current 16. Physics of Solids 17. Electronics 18. Dawn of the Modern Physics 19. Atomic Spectra 20. Nuclear Physics 
1. Physical quantities and units 2. Kinematics 3. Dynamics 4. Forces, density and pressure 5. Work, energy and power 6. Deformation of solids 7. Waves 8. Superposition 9. Electricity 10. D.C. circuits 11. Particle physics 12. Motion in a circle 13. Gravitational fields 14. Temperature 15. Ideal gases 16. Thermodynamics 17. Oscillations 18. Electric fields 19. Capacitance 20. Magnetic fields 21. Alternating currents 22. Quantum physics 23. Nuclear physics 24. Medical physics 25. Astronomy and cosmology 
Compulsory: 1. Measurements and uncertainties 2. Mechanics 3. Thermal physics 4. Waves 5. Electricity and magnetism 6. Circular motion and gravitation 7. Atomic, nuclear and particle physics 8. Energy production 9. Wave phenomena 10. Fields 11. Electromagnetic induction 12. Quantum and nuclear physics Optional: A. Relativity B. Engineering physics C. Imaging D. Astrophysics 
1. Measurement 2. Vectors and Equilibrium 3. Forces and Motion 4. Work and Energy 5. Rotational and Circular Motion 6. Fluid Dynamics 7. Oscillations 8. Waves 9. Physical Optics 10. Thermodynamics 11. Electrostatics 12. Current Electricity 13. Electromagnetism 14. Electromagnetic Induction 15. Alternating Current 16. Physics of Solids 17. Electronics 18. Dawn of the Modern Physics 19. Atomic Spectra 20. Nuclear Physics 21. Medical Physics 22. Astrophysics 




Measurement & Physical Quantities 
Understanding • describe the scope of Physics in science, technology and society. • state SI base units, derived units, and supplementary units for various measurements. • express derived units as products or quotients of the base units. • state the conventions for indicating units as set out in the SI units. • explain why all measurements contain some uncertainty. • distinguish between systematic errors (including zero errors) and random errors. • identify that least count or resolution of a measuring instrument is the smallest increment measurable by it. • differentiate between precision and accuracy. • assess the uncertainty in a derived quantity by simple addition of actual, fractional or percentage uncertainties. • quote answers with correct scientific notation, number of significant figures and units in all numerical and practical work. • check the homogeneity of physical equations by using dimensionality and base units. • derive formulae in simple cases using dimensions. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • measure, using appropriate techniques, the length, mass, time, temperature and electrical quantities by making use of both analogue scales and digital displays particularly short time interval by ticker timer and by C.R.O. • measure length and diameter of a solid cylinder and hence estimate its volume quoting proper number of significant figures. • measure the diameters of a few ball bearings of different sizes and estimate their volumes. Mention the uncertainty in each result. • analyze and evaluate the above experiment and suggest improvements. • determine the radius of curvature of a convex lens and concave lens using a spherometer. • explain why it is important to use an instrument of smallest resolution. • explain the importance of increasing the number of readings in an experiment. • demonstrate the information of general safety rules of the laboratory and proper use of safety equipments. Science, Technology and Society Connections • present data in a wellstructured tabular form for easy interpretation (e.g. ball bearings investigation). • display data by drawing appropriate graphs for the above. • interpret the information from linear or non linear graphs/curves by measuring slopes and intercepts in newspaper or magazines • argue that all daily life measurements are uncertain to some extent. 
1. understand that all physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit 2. make reasonable estimates of physical quantities included within the syllabus 3. recall the following SI base quantities and their units: mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K) 4. express derived units as products or quotients of the SI base units and use the derived units for quantities listed in this syllabus as appropriate 5. use SI base units to check the homogeneity of physical equations 6. recall and use the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal submultiples or multiples of both base and derived units: pico (p), nano (n), micro (μ), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T) 7. understand and explain the effects of systematic errors (including zero errors) and random errors in measurements 8. understand the distinction between precision and accuracy 9. assess the uncertainty in a derived quantity by simple addition of absolute or percentage uncertainties 
• Using SI units in the correct format for all required measurements, final answers to calculations and presentation of raw and processed data • Using scientific notation and metric multipliers • Quoting and comparing ratios, values and approximations to the nearest order of magnitude • Estimating quantities to an appropriate number of significant figures • Explaining how random and systematic errors can be identified and reduced • Collecting data that include absolute and/or fractional uncertainties and stating these as an uncertainty range (expressed as: best estimate ± uncertainty range) • Propagating uncertainties through calculations involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and raising to a power • Determining the uncertainty in gradients and intercepts 
• make reasonable estimates of physical quantities included within the syllabus • express derived units as products or quotients of the SI base units and use the derived units for quantities listed in this syllabus as appropriate • use SI base units to check the homogeneity of physical equations • derive formulae in simple cases using dimensions. • recall and use the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal submultiples or multiples of both base and derived units: pico (p), nano (n), micro (μ), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T) • assess the uncertainty in a derived quantity by simple addition of absolute, fractional or percentage uncertainties • explain why all measurements contain some uncertainty 
The inherent uncertainty in all measurements should initially be taught in terms of all instruments having physical limitations, but then this appreciation should be expanded when students are introduced to the uncertainty principle while studying quantum physics 
What makes something 'physical'? How can you measure a physical quantity? How certain can one be of a measurement? How can sources of error be minimised in experimental data collection? 
The traditional concepts that are taught at this level have been kept, since they form a good foundation for checking the soundness of mathematical derivations and of emperical results in Physics 

Vectors and Equilibrium 
Understanding • describe the Cartesian coordinate system. • determine the sum of vectors using head to tail rule. • represent a vector into two perpendicular components. • determine the sum of vectors using perpendicular components. • describe scalar product of two vectors in term of angle between them. • describe vector product of two vectors in term of angle between them. • state the method to determine the direction of vector product of two vectors. • define the torque as vector product r x F. • list applications of torque or moment due to a force. • state first condition of equilibrium. • state second condition of equilibrium. • solve two dimensional problems involving forces (statics) using 1st and 2nd conditions of equilibrium. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • Determine the weight of a body by vector addition of forces using perpendicular components. • Verify the two conditions of equilibrium using a suspended metre rod. Science, Technology and Society Connections • identify the use of long handle spanner to turn a stubborn bolt. • explain why the height of racing cars is kept low. • explain why do buses and heavy trucks have large steering wheels. • describe how cranes are able to lift very heavy loads without toppling. 
1. understand the difference between scalar and vector quantities and give examples of scalar and vector quantities included in the syllabus 2. add and subtract coplanar vectors 3. represent a vector as two perpendicular components 
• Solving vector problems graphically and algebraically 
Conceptual: • add and subtract coplanar vectors • represent a vector as two perpendicular components 

How can you measure a physical quantity? How can you describe a physical quantity? 
This is a significant reduction from the mathematical expectations of vector analysis in the 2006 national curriculum and will allow for more time to master various topics in detail. Resolving vectors into x and y components is the usual standard of expectation at this level internationally. 

Forces and Motion 
Understanding • describe vector nature of displacement. • describe average and instantaneous velocities of objects. • compare average and instantaneous speeds with average and instantaneous velocities. • interpret displacementtime and velocitytime graphs of objects moving along the same straight line. • determine the instantaneous velocity of an object moving along the same straight line by measuring the slope of displacementtime graph. • define average acceleration (as rate of change of velocity aav = ∆v / ∆t) and instantaneous acceleration (as the limiting value of average acceleration when time interval ∆t approaches zero). • distinguish between positive and negative acceleration, uniform and variable acceleration. • determine the instantaneous acceleration of an object measuring the slope of velocitytime graph. • manipulate equation of uniformly accelerated motion to solve problems. • explain that projectile motion is two dimensional motion in a vertical plane. • communicate the ideas of a projectile in the absence of air resistance that. (i) Horizontal component (VH) of velocity is constant. (ii) Acceleration is in the vertical direction and is the same as that of a vertically free falling object. (iii) The horizontal motion and vertical motion are independent of each other. • evaluate using equations of uniformly accelerated motion that for a given initial velocity of frictionless projectile. 1. How higher does it go? 2. How far would it go along the level land? 3. Where would it be after a given time? 4. How long will it remain in air? • determine for a projectile launched from ground height. 1. launch angle that results in the maximum range. 2. relation between the launch angles that result in the same range. • describe how air resistance affects both the horizontal component and vertical component of velocity and hence the range of the projectile. • apply Newton’s laws to explain the motion of objects in a variety of context. • define mass ( as the property of a body which resists change in motion). • describe and use of the concept of weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass. • describe the Newton’s second law of motion as rate of change of momentum. • corelate Newton’s third law of motion and conservation of momentum. • show awareness that Newton’s Laws are not exact but provide a good approximation, unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects become significant. • define Impulse (as a product of impulsive force and time). • describe the effect of an impulsive force on the momentum of an object, and the effect of lengthening the time, stopping, or rebounding from the collision. • describe that while momentum of a system is always conserved in interaction between bodies some change in K.E. usually takes place. • solve different problems of elastic and inelastic collisions between two bodies in one dimension by using law of conservation of momentum. • describe that momentum is conserved in all situations. • identify that for a perfectly elastic collision, the relative speed of approach is equal to the relative speed of separation. • differentiate between explosion and collision (objects move apart instead of coming nearer). Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work• analyse and interpret patterns of motion of objects using (i) Displacementtime graph (ii) Velocitytime graph (iii) Accelerationtime graph • measure the free fall time of a ball using a tickertimer and hence calculate the value of “g”. Evaluate your result and identify the sources of error and suggest improvements. • investigate the value of “g” by free fall method • investigate momentum conservation by colliding trolleys and tickertimer for elastic and inelastic collisions • investigate the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of inclination by plotting graph between force and sin θ Science, Technology and Society Connections • Outline the forces involved in causing a change in the velocity of a vehicle when: • coasting with no pressure on the acceleration. • pressing on the accelerator. • pressing on the brakes. • passing over an icy patch on the road. • climbing and descending hills. • investigate and explain the effect of the launch height of a projectiles (e.g. a shot put launched from a shoulder height) on a maximum range and the affect of launch angle for a given height. • describe to what extent the air resistance affects various projectiles in sports • evaluate the effectiveness of some safety features of motor vehicles in connection with the changing momentum such as safety helmet, seat belt, head rest of the car seat. • describe the conservation of momentum for (i) car crashes (ii) ball & bat. • assess the reasons for the introduction of low speed zones in builtup areas and the addition of air bags and crumple zones to vehicles with respect to the concepts of impulse and momentum. • explain in terms of law of conservation of momentum, the motion under thrust of a rocket in a straight line considering short thrusts during which the mass remains constant • describe the nature of the rocket thrusts necessary to cause a space vehicle to change direction along a circular arc in a region of space where gravity is negligible 
1. define and use distance, displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration 2. use graphical methods to represent distance, displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration 3. determine displacement from the area under a velocity–time graph 4. determine velocity using the gradient of a displacement–time graph 5. determine acceleration using the gradient of a velocity–time graph 6. derive, from the definitions of velocity and acceleration, equations that represent uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line 7. solve problems using equations that represent uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line, including the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field without air resistance 8. describe an experiment to determine the acceleration of free fall using a falling object 9. describe and explain motion due to a uniform velocity in one direction and a uniform acceleration in a perpendicular direction 10. understand that mass is the property of an object that resists change in motion 11. recall F = ma and solve problems using it, understanding that acceleration and resultant force are always in the same direction 12. define and use linear momentum as the product of mass and velocity 13. define and use force as rate of change of momentum 14. state and apply each of Newton’s laws of motion 15. describe and use the concept of weight as the effect of a gravitational field on a mass and recall that the weight of an object is equal to the product of its mass and the acceleration of free fall 16. show a qualitative understanding of frictional forces and viscous/drag forces including air resistance (no treatment of the coefficients of friction and viscosity is required, and a simple model of drag force increasing as speed increases is sufficient) 17. describe and explain qualitatively the motion of objects in a uniform gravitational field with air resistance 18. understand that objects moving against a resistive force may reach a terminal (constant) velocity state the principle of conservation of momentum 19. apply the principle of conservation of momentum to solve simple problems, including elastic and inelastic interactions between objects in both one and two dimensions (knowledge of the concept of coefficient of restitution is not required) 20. recall that, for an elastic collision, total kinetic energy is conserved and the relative speed of approach is equal to the relative speed of separation 21. understand that, while momentum of a system is always conserved in interactions between objects, some change in kinetic energy may take place 22. understand that the weight of an object may be taken as acting at a single point known as its centre of gravity 23. define and apply the moment of a force 24. understand that a couple is a pair of forces that acts to produce rotation only 25. define and apply the torque of a couple 26. state and apply the principle of moments 27. understand that, when there is no resultant force and no resultant torque, a system is in equilibrium 28. use a vector triangle to represent coplanar forces in equilibrium 
• Determining instantaneous and average values for velocity, speed and acceleration • Solving problems using equations of motion for uniform acceleration • Sketching and interpreting motion graphs • Determining the acceleration of freefall experimentally • Analysing projectile motion, including the resolution of vertical and horizontal components of acceleration, velocity and displacement • Qualitatively describing the effect of fluid resistance on falling objects or projectiles, including reaching terminal speed • Representing forces as vectors • Sketching and interpreting freebody diagrams • Describing the consequences of Newton’s first law for translational equilibrium • Using Newton’s second law quantitatively and qualitatively • Identifying force pairs in the context of Newton’s third law • Solving problems involving forces and determining resultant force • Describing solid friction (static and dynamic) by coefficients of friction • Applying conservation of momentum in simple isolated systems including (but not limited to) collisions, explosions, or water jets • Using Newton’s second law quantitatively and qualitatively in cases where mass is not constant • Sketching and interpreting force–time graphs • Determining impulse in various contexts including (but not limited to) car safety and sports • Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing situations involving elastic collisions, inelastic collisions and explosions • Calculating torque for single forces and couples • Solving problems involving moment of inertia, torque and angular acceleration • Solving problems in which objects are in both rotational and translational equilibrium • Solving problems using rotational quantities analogous to linear quantities • Sketching and interpreting graphs of rotational motion • Solving problems involving rolling without slipping 
Conceptual: Kinematics • derive, from the definitions of velocity and acceleration, equations that represent uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line • solve problems using equations that represent uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line, including the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field without air resistance Forces: • use a vector triangle to represent coplanar forces in equilibrium • explain that projectile motion is two dimensional motion in a vertical plane. • communicate the ideas of a projectile in the absence of air resistance that the (i) Horizontal component (VH) of velocity is constant. (ii) Acceleration is in the vertical direction and is the same as that of a vertically free falling object. (iii) The horizontal motion and vertical motion are independent of each other. • evaluate using equations of uniformly accelerated motion that for a given initial velocity of frictionless projectile.  How higher does it go?  How far would it go along the level land?  Where would it be after a given time?  How long will it remain in air? • determine for a projectile launched from ground height the  launch angle that results in the maximum range.  relation between the launch angles that result in the same range. • describe how air resistance affects both the horizontal component and vertical component of velocity and hence the range of the projectile. Momentum: • apply the principle of conservation of momentum to solve simple problems, including elastic and inelastic interactions between objects in both one and two dimensions (knowledge of the concept of coefficient of restitution is not required), such as:  karate chops to break a pile of bricks  car crashes  ball & bat  the motion under thrust of a rocket in a straight line considering short thrusts during which the mass remains constant • recall that, for an elastic collision, total kinetic energy is conserved and the relative speed of approach is equal to the relative speed of separation • understand that, while momentum of a system is always conserved in interactions between objects, some change in kinetic energy may take place 

What is motion? How do you describe motion? 
It is assumed that students are already familiar with the SLOs for kinematics and forces (including Newton's laws of motion) from Grades 9 and 10. Hence those SLOs foundational SLOs are not stated here again. It is expected that students will use their knowledge of Grades 910 Physics in solving problems at this level. Projecticle motion is an important expansion of understanding motion, and universities often assume that students will be familiar with its basic mathematical framing. This topic also helps students appreciate how scientists mathematically plan for launching rockets into outersspace, or engineer ballistic weapons. Learning how to apply the conservation of momentum in two dimensions is also an important expectation internationally at this level. 

Work, Energy and Power 
Understanding • describe the concept of work in terms of the product of force F and displacement d in the direction of force (Work as scalar product of F and d). • distinguish between positive, negative and zero work with suitable examples. • describe that work can be calculated from the area under the forcedisplacement graph. • differentiate conservative and non conservative forces giving examples of each. • express power as scalar product of force and velocity. • explain that work done against friction is dissipated as heat in the environment. • state the implications of energy losses in practical devices and the concept of efficiency. • utilize work – energy theorem in a resistive medium to solve problems. • discuss and make a list of limitations of some conventional sources of energy. • describe the potentials of some nonconventional sources of energy. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • investigate, at construction sites by comparing a labourer and an electric motor for carrying the bricks to the top of the building. Identify the economy involved. • investigate that if a ping pong ball is dropped from rest onto a hard plane surface, it usually returns to 75% of its original height after bouncing. What percentage of the energy of the ping pong ball is lost on each bounce? What happens to that energy? • design an investigation to determine how the efficiency of an electric motor varies with load. Science, Technology and Society Connections • identify, by estimating the cost, benefits of application of scientific principles related, to work and energy in lifting objects by a crane. • explain why a car going up a hill requires lower top speed than a car going on the flat. • identify energy conversions. (i) moving car engine (ii) thermal power station (iii) Hydroelectric power station • investigate and explain how global climate is determined by energy transfer from the Sun and is influenced by a dynamic process (e.g. cloud formation and the earth’s rotation) and static conditions (e.g. the position of mountain ranges and oceans) • explain how trash can be utilized for producing energy (biogas). 
1. understand the concept of work, and recall and use work done = force × displacement in the direction of the force 2. recall and apply the principle of conservation of energy 3. recall and understand that the efficiency of a system is the ratio of useful energy output from the system to the total energy input 4. use the concept of efficiency to solve problems 5. define power as work done per unit time 6. solve problems using P = W/t 7. derive P = Fv and use it to solve problems 8. derive, using W = Fs, the formula ∆EP = mg∆h for gravitational potential energy changes in a uniform gravitational field 9. recall and use the formula ∆EP = mg∆h for gravitational potential energy changes in a uniform gravitational field 10. derive, using the equations of motion, the formula for kinetic energy EK = 1/2mv2 11. recall and use EK = 1/2mv2 
• Discussing the conservation of total energy within energy transformations • Sketching and interpreting force–distance graphs • Determining work done including cases where a resistive force acts • Solving problems involving power • Quantitatively describing efficiency in energy transfers 
Conceptual: • derive, using the equations of motion, the formula for kinetic energy EK = 1/2mv2 • describe that work can be calculated from the area under the forcedisplacement graph. • differentiate conservative and non conservative forces giving examples of each. • utilize work – energy theorem in a resistive medium to solve problems analytically and graphically 

What is energy? How can energy be converted from one from to another? How can systems be engineered that maximise efficiency? How can energy resources in the world be sustainably harnessed without damaging the environment? 
It is assumed that students are already familiar with the SLOs for work, energy and power from Grades 9 and 10. Hence those SLOs foundational SLOs are not stated here again. It is expected that students will use their knowledge of Grades 910 Physics in solving problems at this level. These are the traditional SLOs that are normally taught at this grade level, and provide a conceptuaal foundation for understanding other topics at the grade level like Gravitation and Deformation of Solids 

Rotational and Circular Motion 
Understanding • define angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration and express angular displacement in radians. • solve problems by using S= r θ and v=rω . • state and use of equations of angular motion to solve problems involving rotational motions. • describe qualitatively motion in a curved path due to a perpendicular force. • derive and use centripetal acceleration a = rω², a = v² /r. • solve problems using centripetal force F = mrω², F = mv² /r. • describe situations in which the centripetal acceleration is caused by a tension force, a frictional force, a gravitational force, or a normal force. • explain when a vehicle travels round a banked curve at the specified speed for the banking angle, the horizontal component of the normal force on the vehicle causes the centripetal acceleration. • describe the equation tanθ = v2/rg, relating banking angle θ to the speed v of the vehicle and the radius of curvature r. • explain that satellites can be put into orbits round the earth because of the gravitational force between the earth and the satellite. • explain that the objects in orbiting satellites appear to be weightless. • describe how artificial gravity is created to counter balance weightless. • analyze that satellites can be used to send information between places on the earth which are far apart, to monitor conditions on earth , including the weather, and to observe the universe without the atmosphere getting in the way. • describe that communication satellites are usually put into orbit high above the equator and that they orbit the earth once a day so that they appear stationary when viewed from earth. • define moment of inertia of a body and angular momentum. • derive a relation between torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration. • explain conservation of angular momentum as a universal law and describe examples of conservation of angular momentum. • use the formulae of moment of inertia of various bodies for solving problems. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • demonstrate the conservation of angular momentum by spinning stool and dumbles (weights). • demonstrate the action of a centrifuge e.g. washing machine dryer. • determine the moment of inertia of a fly wheel. Science, Technology and Society Connections • assess the suitability of the recommended speed limit for the given data on the banking angle and radius of curvature of some roads. • describe the experience of roller coaster rides in the amusement parks. • describe the principles and benefits of weather forecasting and communication satellites. • evaluate the accuracy of the information presented in a newspaper article on satellite. • write a report on an information search on the topic of ‘space station 
1. define the radian and express angular displacement in radians 2. understand and use the concept of angular speed 3. recall and use ω = 2π/T and v = rω 4. understand that a force of constant magnitude that is always perpendicular to the direction of motion causes centripetal acceleration 5. understand that centripetal acceleration causes circular motion with a constant angular speed 6. recall and use a = rω2 and a = v2 /r 7. recall and use F = mrω2 and F = mv2 /r 
• Identifying the forces providing the centripetal forces such as tension, friction, gravitational, electrical, or magnetic • Solving problems involving centripetal force, centripetal acceleration, period, frequency, angular displacement, linear speed and angular velocity • Qualitatively and quantitatively describing examples of circular motion including cases of vertical and horizontal circular motion 
Conceptual: • define the radian and express angular displacement in radians • define angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration and express angular displacement in radians. • solve problems by using S= r θ and v=rω . • recall and use ω = 2π/T • state and use of equations of angular motion to solve problems involving rotational motions. • describe qualitatively motion in a curved path due to a perpendicular force. • derive and use centripetal acceleration a = rω², a = v² /r. • solve problems using centripetal force F = mrω², F = mv² /r. • describe situations in which the centripetal acceleration is caused by a tension force, a frictional force, a gravitational force, or a normal force. • explain when a vehicle travels round a banked curve at the specified speed for the banking angle, the horizontal component of the normal force on the vehicle causes the centripetal acceleration. • describe the equation tanθ = v2/rg, relating banking angle θ to the speed v of the vehicle and the radius of curvature r. • explain that satellites can be put into orbits round the earth because of the gravitational force between the earth and the satellite. • explain that the objects in orbiting satellites appear to be weightless. • describe how artificial gravity is created to counter balance weightless. • analyze that satellites can be used to send information between places on the earth which are far apart, to monitor conditions on earth , including the weather, and to observe the universe without the atmosphere getting in the way. • describe that communication satellites are usually put into orbit high above the equator and that they orbit the earth once a day so that they appear stationary when viewed from earth. • define moment of inertia of a body and angular momentum. • derive a relation between torque, moment of inertia and angular acceleration. • explain conservation of angular momentum as a universal law and describe examples of conservation of angular momentum. • use the formulae of moment of inertia of various bodies for solving problems. • identify the direction of rocket thrusts necessary to cause a space vehicle to change direction along a circular arc in a region of space where gravity is negligible • explain how a centrifuge is used to separate materials using centripetal force • explain how angular momentum is used:  by flywheels to store rotational energy  by gyroscopes in navigation systems  by ice skaters to adjust their angular velocity 
Knowledge of vector dot and cross products and calculus is not expected 
What is motion? How do you describe motion? 
There is significant variation in terms of the level of depth this topic is covered at this level. In the 2006 national curriculum, there is emphasis on understanding these concepts through vector cross products, whereas within CAIE A levels ideas of angular momentum and rotational inertia are not covered. These standards cover the formula for centripetal force and its application, along with concepts of angular momentum and moment of inertia. This is because it provides students with a complete foundation of basic rotational kinematics and dynamics, and these act as analogous extensions of what they learn about linear motion. These topics are important in understanding everything from climate change to how navigation devices work. Prior knowledge of these topics is often assumed at the university level, where students then have to study these topics in parallel with higher level application of calculus and vector algebra. Hence these balanced SLOs have been formulated as minimum standards. 

Fluid Dynamics 
Understanding • define the terms: steady (streamline or laminar) flow, incompressible flow and non viscous flow as applied to the motion of an ideal fluid. • explain that at a sufficiently high velocity, the flow of viscous fluid undergoes a transition from laminar to turbulence conditions. • describe that the majority of practical examples of fluid flow and resistance to motion in fluids involve turbulent rather than laminar conditions. • describe equation of continuity Aν = Constant, for the flow of an ideal and incompressible fluid and solve problems using it. • identify that the equation of continuity is a form of the principle of conservation of mass. • describe that the pressure difference can arise from different rates of flow of a fluid (Bernoulli effect). • derive Bernoullie equation in the form P + ½ ρv2 + ρgh = constant for the case of horizontal tube of flow. • interpret and apply Bernoulli Effect in the: filter pump, Venturi meter, in, atomizers, flow of air over an aerofoil and in blood physics. • describe that real fluids are viscous fluids. • describe that viscous forces in a fluid cause a retarding force on an object moving through it. • explain how the magnitude of the viscous force in fluid flow depends on the shape and velocity of the object. • apply dimensional analysis to confirm the form of the equation F = Aηrv where ‘A’ is a dimensionless constant (Stokes’ Law) for the drag force under laminar conditions in a viscous fluid. • apply Stokes’ law to derive an expression for terminal velocity of spherical body falling through a viscous fluid. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • investigate the effect of moving air on pressure by demonstrating with Venturi meter. • investigate the fall of spherical steel balls through a viscous medium and determine (i) terminal velocity (ii) coefficient of viscosity of the fluid • investigate the viscosity of different liquids by measuring the terminal velocity. • describe of systolic pressure and diastolic pressure and use sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure. Science, Technology and Society Connections • show that a table tennis ball can be made suspended in the stream of air coming from the nozzle of hair dryer. • explain the streamlined designing of racing cars and boats. • explain that the streamlined bodies of dolphins assist their movement in water. • describe that when water falls from a tap, its speed increases and so its cross sectional area decreases as mandated by the continuity equation. • describe that a stream of air passing over a tubes dipped in liquid will cause the liquid to rise in the tube. This effect is used in perfume bottles and paint sprayers. • explain why a chimney works best when it is tall and exposed to air currents which reduces the pressure at the top and forces the upward flow of smoke. • state qualitative explanations in terms of turbulence and Bernoulli Effect for the swing of spinning cricket ball and the lift of a spinning golf ball. • describe that a filter pump has constriction in the centre, so that a jet of water from the tap flows faster here. • explain that the carburettor of a car engine uses a Venturi duct to feed the correct mix of air and petrol to the cylinders. 
1. define and use density 2. define and use pressure 3. derive, from the definitions of pressure and density, the equation for hydrostatic pressure ∆p = ρg∆h 4. use the equation ∆p = ρg∆h 5. understand that the upthrust acting on an object in a fluid is due to a difference in hydrostatic pressure 6. calculate the upthrust acting on an object in a fluid using the equation F = ρgV (Archimedes’ principle) 
• Determining buoyancy forces using Archimedes’ principle • Solving problems involving pressure, density and Pascal’s principle • Solving problems using the Bernoulli equation and the continuity equation • Explaining situations involving the Bernoulli effect • Describing the frictional drag force exerted on small spherical objects in laminar fluid flow • Solving problems involving Stokes’ law • Determining the Reynolds number in simple situations 
Conceptual: • derive, from the definitions of pressure and density, the equation for hydrostatic pressure ∆p = ρg∆h • use the equation ∆p = ρg∆h • understand that the upthrust acting on an object in a fluid is due to a difference in hydrostatic pressure • calculate the upthrust acting on an object in a fluid using the equation F = ρgV (Archimedes’ principle) • explain how ships are engineered to float in the sea in terms of principle of flotation • define the terms: steady (streamline or laminar) flow, incompressible flow and non viscous flow as applied to the motion of an ideal fluid. • explain that at a sufficiently high velocity, the flow of viscous fluid undergoes a transition from laminar to turbulence conditions. • describe that the majority of practical examples of fluid flow and resistance to motion in fluids involve turbulent rather than laminar conditions. • describe equation of continuity Aν = Constant, for the flow of an ideal and incompressible fluid and solve problems using it. • explain that for water falling from a tap, when the flow rate increases the cross sectional area decreases as mandated by the continuity equation. • identify that the equation of continuity is a form of the principle of conservation of mass. • describe that the pressure difference can arise from different rates of flow of a fluid (Bernoulli effect). • describe that the pressure difference can arise from different rates of flow of a fluid (Bernoulli effect). • derive Bernoullie equation in the form P + ½ ρv2 + ρgh = constant for the case of horizontal tube of flow. • interpret and apply Bernoulli Effect in the: filter pump, Venturi meter, in, atomizers, flow of air over an aerofoil and in blood physics. • describe that real fluids are viscous fluids. • describe that viscous forces in a fluid cause a retarding force on an object moving through it. • analyse how the below applications work because of the Bernoulli efftect:  atomisers in perfume bottles and paint sprayers  the swinging trajectory of a spinning cricket ball and the lift of a spinning gold ball (the magnus effect)  the use of Ventur ducts in filter pumps and car enginers to ajust the flow of fluid 
he topic is expected to be taught without calculus, and connected with the base knowledge students have of static fluid pressure and of the law of conservation of energy. 
What causes objects to float and sink? How is pressure generated and regulated in flowing fluids? 
Fluid dynamics is covered in the 2006 national curriculum, and in the IB curriculum as an optional topic. It is not addressed in the CAIE A level curriculum. It is felt that fluid dynamics are important to have a basis in for not only engineers and scientists (especially since the continuity equation is made extensive use of in many other areas of physics such as in Maxwell's equations and caculus theorems) but as an important knowledge base for understanding everyday phenomena around us (e.g. why cricket balls in flight can swerve and how aeroplanes generate lift). Fluid dynamics is not always taught in university level courses in STEM; it is sometimes assumed that students will already have studied it in highschool. Hence it is useful to incprorate it at high school for Pakistani students to adjust to higher study in STEM with maximum ease. 

Oscillations and Simple Harmonic Motion 
Understanding • describe simple examples of free oscillations. • describe necessary conditions for execution of simple harmonic motions. • describe that when an object moves in a circle, the motion of its projection on the diameter of the circles is SHM. • define the terms amplitude, period, frequency, angular frequency and phase difference and express the period in terms of both frequency and angular frequency. • identify and use the equation; a=  ω2x as the defining equation of SHM. • prove that the motion of mass attached to a spring is SHM. • describe the interchanging between kinetic energy and potential energy during SHM. • analyze the motion of a simple pendulum is SHM and calculate its time period. • describe practical examples of free and forced oscillations (resonance). • describe graphically how the amplitude of a forced oscillation changes with frequency near to the natural frequency of the system. • describe practical examples of damped oscillations with particular reference to the efforts of the degree of damping and the importance of critical damping in cases such as a car suspension system. • describe qualitatively the factors which determine the frequency response and sharpness of the resonance. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • verify that the time period of the simple pendulum is directly proportional to the square root of its length and hence find the value of g from the graph. • determine the acceleration due to gravity by oscillating massspring system. • determine the value of g by vibrating a metal lamina suspending from different points. Science, Technology and Society Connections • explain the importance of critical damping in a car suspension system. • identify that there are some circumstances in which resonance is useful such as tuning a radio, microwave oven and other circumstances in which resonance should be avoided such as aeroplane’s wing or helicopter rotor, suspension bridge etc. 
1. understand and use the terms displacement, amplitude, period, frequency, angular frequency and phase difference in the context of oscillations, and express the period in terms of both frequency and angular frequency 2. understand that simple harmonic motion occurs when acceleration is proportional to displacement from a fixed point and in the opposite direction 3. use a = –ω2x and recall and use, as a solution to this equation, x = x0 sin ωt 4. use the equations v = v0 cos ωt and v = ±ω ( ) x x 02 2 − 5. analyse and interpret graphical representations of the variations of displacement, velocity and acceleration for simple harmonic motion 6. describe the interchange between kinetic and potential energy during simple harmonic motion 7. recall and use E = 1/2mω2x02 for the total energy of a system undergoing simple harmonic motion 8. understand that a resistive force acting on an oscillating system causes damping 9. understand and use the terms light, critical and heavy damping and sketch displacement–time graphs illustrating these types of damping 10. understand that resonance involves a maximum amplitude of oscillations and that this occurs when an oscillating system is forced to oscillate at its natural frequency 
• Qualitatively describing the energy changes taking place during one cycle of an oscillation • Sketching and interpreting graphs of simple harmonic motion examples • Solving problems involving acceleration, velocity and displacement during simple harmonic motion, both graphically and algebraically • Describing the interchange of kinetic and potential energy during simple harmonic motion • Solving problems involving energy transfer during simple harmonic motion, both graphically and algebraically • Qualitatively and quantitatively describing examples of under, over and critically damped oscillations • Graphically describing the variation of the amplitude of vibration with driving frequency of an object close to its natural frequency of vibration • Describing the phase relationship between driving frequency and forced oscillations • Solving problems involving Q factor • Describing the useful and destructive effects of resonance 
Conceptual: • describe simple examples of free oscillations. • understand and use the terms displacement, amplitude, period, frequency, angular frequency and phase difference in the context of oscillations, and express the period in terms of both frequency and angular frequency • understand that simple harmonic motion occurs when acceleration is proportional to displacement from a fixed point and in the opposite direction • use a = –ω2x and recall and use, as a solution to this equation, x = x0 sin ωt • use the equations v = v0 cos ωt and v = ±ω ( ) x x 02 2 − • analyse and interpret graphical representations of the variations of displacement, velocity and acceleration for simple harmonic motion • describe the interchange between kinetic and potential energy during simple harmonic motion • recall and use E = 1/2mω2x02 for the total energy of a system undergoing simple harmonic motion • understand that a resistive force acting on an oscillating system causes damping • understand and use the terms light, critical and heavy damping and sketch displacement–time graphs illustrating these types of damping • understand that resonance involves a maximum amplitude of oscillations and that this occurs when an oscillating system is forced to oscillate at its natural frequency • describe practical examples of free and forced oscillations (resonance). • describe practical examples of damped oscillations with particular reference to the efforts of the degree of damping and the importance of critical damping in cases such as a car suspension system. • describe qualitatively the factors which determine the frequency response and sharpness of the resonance. • identify the use of standing waves and resonance in applications such as rubens tubes, chladni plates and acoustic levitation (knowiledge of wave harmonic modes is not required) • explain the importance of critical damping in a car suspension system • identify that there are some circumstances in which resonance is useful such as tuning a radio, microwave oven and other circumstances in which resonance should be avoided such as aeroplane’s wing or a suspension bridge 

What is the nature of vibration? How can vibration be studied? How can vibration be harnessed? 
These are the traditional SLOs that are usually taught at this level across most curricula. They serve as a strong foundation for mathematically understanding waves, alternating current, and mamy othe related phenomena. Most STEM programs at university assume that this level of knowledge will be had by students. 

Fields and Gravitation 
• explain gravitational field as an example of field of force and define gravitational field strength as force per unit mass at a given point. • prove that gravitational field is a conservative field. • compute and show that the work done by gravity as a mass ‘m’ is moved from one given point to another does not depend on the path followed. • describe that the gravitational PE is measured from a reference level and can be positive or negative, to denote the orientation from the reference level. • define potential at a point as work done in bringing unit mass from infinity to that point. • explain the concept of escape velocity in term of gravitational constant G, mass m and radius of planet r. • define the term orbital velocity and derive relationship between orbital velocity, the gravitational constant, mass and the radius of the orbit. 
 understand that a gravitational field is an example of a field of force and define gravitational field as force per unit mass  represent a gravitational field by means of field lines  understand that, for a point outside a uniform sphere, the mass of the sphere may be considered to be a point mass at its centre  recall and use Newton’s law of gravitation F = Gm1m2 /r2 for the force between two point masses  analyse circular orbits in gravitational fields by relating the gravitational force to the centripetal acceleration it causes  understand that a satellite in a geostationary orbit remains at the same point above the Earth’s surface, with an orbital period of 24 hours, orbiting from west to east, directly above the Equator  derive, from Newton’s law of gravitation and the definition of gravitational field, the equation g = GM/r2 for the gravitational field strength due to a point mass  recall and use g = GM/r2  understand why g is approximately constant for small changes in height near the Earth’s surface define gravitational potential at a point as the work done per unit mass in bringing a small test mass from infinity to the point  use ϕ = –GM/r for the gravitational potential in the field due to a point mass  understand how the concept of gravitational potential leads to the gravitational potential energy of two point masses and use EP = –GMm/r 
 Newton’s law of gravitation should be extended to spherical masses of uniform density by assuming that their mass is concentrated at their centre  Gravitational field strength at a point is the force per unit mass experienced by a small point mass at that point  Calculations of the resultant gravitational field strength due to two bodies will be restricted to points along the straight line joining the bodies  Representing sources of mass and charge, lines of electric and gravitational force, and field patterns using an appropriate symbolism  Mapping fields using potential  Describing the connection between equipotential surfaces and field lines  Determining the potential energy of a point mass and the potential energy of a point charge  Solving problems involving potential energy  Determining the potential inside a charged sphere  Solving problems involving the speed required for an object to go into orbit around a planet and for an object to escape the gravitational field of a planet  Solving problems involving orbital energy of charged particles in circular orbital motion and masses in circular orbital motion  Solving problems involving forces on charges and masses in radial and uniform fields 
Conceptual: • understand that a gravitational field is an example of a field of force and define gravitational field as force per unit mass • represent a gravitational field by means of field lines • understand that, for a point outside a uniform sphere, the mass of the sphere may be considered to be a point mass at its centre • recall and use Newton’s law of gravitation F = Gm1m2 /r2 for the force between two point masses • analyse circular orbits in gravitational fields by relating the gravitational force to the centripetal acceleration it causes • understand that a satellite in a geostationary orbit remains at the same point above the Earth’s surface, with an orbital period of 24 hours, orbiting from west to east, directly above the Equator • derive, from Newton’s law of gravitation and the definition of gravitational field, the equation g = GM/r2 for the gravitational field strength due to a point mass • recall and use g = GM/r2 • understand why g is approximately constant for small changes in height near the Earth’s surface • define gravitational potential at a point as the work done per unit mass in bringing a small test mass from infinity to the point • use ϕ = –GM/r for the gravitational potential in the field due to a point mass • understand how the concept of gravitational potential leads to the gravitational potential energy of two point masses and use EP = –GMm/r 

What is the nature of gravity? How do objects in the universe interact with one another? 
These are the traditional SLOs that are usually taught at this level across most curricula. They serve as a necesary foundation for studying astrophysics and cosmology as well as aerospace engineering. For the scienceinformed general public, knowledge of gravitation helps appreciate how powerful this basic mathematical assumption about laws of nature holding true throughout the observable universe have been in understanding the motion of celestial bodies (as well as discovering new phenomena like black holes). 

Waves 
Understanding • describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes, springs and ripple tank. • demonstrate that mechanical waves require a medium for their propagation while electromagnetic waves do not. • define and apply the following terms to the wave model; medium, displacement, amplitude, period, compression, rarefaction, crest, trough, wavelength, velocity. • solve problems using the equation: v = fλ. • describe that energy is transferred due to a progressive wave. • identify that sound waves are vibrations of particles in a medium. • compare transverse and longitudinal waves. • explain that speed of sound depends on the properties of medium in which it propagates and describe Newton’s formula of speed of waves. • describe the Laplace correction in Newton’s formula for speed of sound in air. • Identify the factors on which speed of sound in air depends. • describe the principle of superposition of two waves from coherent sources. • describe the phenomenon of interference of sound waves. • describe the phenomenon of formation of beats due to interference of non coherent sources. • explain the formation of stationary waves using graphical method • define the terms, node and antinodes. • describe modes of vibration of strings. • describe formation of stationary waves in vibrating air columns. • explain the observed change in frequency of a mechanical wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (i.e. Doppler effect). • explain that Doppler effect is also applicable to e.m. waves. • explain the principle of the generation and detection of ultrasonic waves using piezoelectric transducers. • explain the main principles behind the use of ultrasound to obtain diagnostic information about internal structures. • describe light waves as a part of electromagnetic waves spectrum. • describe the concept of wave front. • state Huygen’s principle and use it to construct wave front after a time interval. • state the necessary conditions to observe interference of light. • describe Young’s double slit experiment and the evidence it provides to support the wave theory of light. • explain colour pattern due to interference in thin films. • describe the parts and working of Michleson Interferometer and its uses. • explain diffraction and identify that interference occurs between waves that have been diffracted. • describe that diffraction of light is evidence that light behaves like waves. • describe and explain diffraction at a narrow slit. • describe the use of a diffraction grating to determine the wavelength of light and carry out calculations using dsinθ=nλ. • describe the phenomena of diffraction of Xrays through crystals. • explain polarization as a phenomenon associated with transverse waves. • identify and express that polarization is produced by a Polaroid. • explain the effect of rotation of Polaroid on Polarization. • explain how plane polarized light is produced and detected Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • investigate, sketch and interpret the behaviour of wave fronts as they reflect, refract, and diffract by observing (i) Pond ripples / ocean waves / harbour waves / amusement park waves pools. • determine frequency of A.C. by Melde’s apparatus/electric sonometer. • investigate the laws of vibration of stretched strings by sonometer or electromagnetic method. • determine the wavelength of sound in air using stationary waves and to calculate the speed of sound using resonance tube. • study the interference of ultrasonic waves in a Young’s experiment arrangement and determine the wavelength of ultrasonic waves. • investigate that light can be diffracted but needs a very small slit because the wavelength of light is small. • demonstrate diffraction including the diffraction of water waves in a ripple tank with both a wide gap and a narrow gap. • measure the slit separation/ grating element ‘d’ of a diffraction grating by using the known wavelength of laser light. • demonstrate the interference, diffraction and polarization of e.m. waves by Using microwave apparatus. • determine the wavelength of light by using a diffraction grating and spectrometer. • measure the diameter of a wire or hair using laser. • determine the pick count of a nylon mesh by using a diffraction grating and laser. • demonstrate polarization of light waves using two Polaroid glasses and LDR and hence, verify Malus’ law. Science, Technology and Society Connections • explain the tuning of musical instruments by beats. • explain the applications of Doppler effect such as radar, sonar, astronomy, satellite and radar speed traps. • outline some cardiac problems that can be detected through the use of the Doppler’s effect. • describe the working of ultrasonic cleaners. • describe the diffraction of Xrays to study the crystalline structures of various materials. • explain the use of Polaroid in the sky photography, concentration of sugar and tartaric acid in solutions, stress analysis of materials. 
1. describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes, springs and ripple tanks 2. understand and use the terms displacement, amplitude, phase difference, period, frequency, wavelength and speed 3. understand the use of the timebase and ygain of a cathoderay oscilloscope (CRO) to determine frequency and amplitude 4. derive, using the definitions of speed, frequency and wavelength, the wave equation v = f λ 5. recall and use v = f λ 6. understand that energy is transferred by a progressive wave 7. recall and use intensity = power/area and intensity ∝(amplitude)2 for a progressive wave 8. compare transverse and longitudinal waves 9. analyse and interpret graphical representations of transverse and longitudinal waves 10. understand that when a source of sound waves moves relative to a stationary observer, the observed frequency is different from the source frequency (understanding of the Doppler effect for a stationary source and a moving observer is not required) 11. use the expression fο = f sv /(v ± vs) for the observed frequency when a source of sound waves moves relative to a stationary observer 12. state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same speed c in free space 13. recall the approximate range of wavelengths in free space of the principal regions of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to γrays 14. recall that wavelengths in the range 400–700nm in free space are visible to the human eye 15. understand that polarisation is a phenomenon associated with transverse waves 16. recall and use Malus’s law (I = I0 cos2θ ) to calculate the intensity of a planepolarised electromagnetic wave after transmission through a polarising filter or a series of polarising filters (calculation of the effect of a polarising filter on the intensity of an unpolarised wave is not required) 17. explain and use the principle of superposition 18. show an understanding of experiments that demonstrate stationary waves using microwaves, stretched strings and air columns (it will be assumed that end corrections are negligible; knowledge of the concept of end corrections is not required) 19. explain the formation of a stationary wave using a graphical method, and identify nodes and antinodes 20. understand how wavelength may be determined from the positions of nodes or antinodes of a stationary wave 21. explain the meaning of the term diffraction 22. show an understanding of experiments that demonstrate diffraction including the qualitative effect of the gap width relative to the wavelength of the wave; for example diffraction of water waves in a ripple tank 23. understand the terms interference and coherence 24. show an understanding of experiments that demonstrate twosource interference using water waves in a ripple tank, sound, light and microwaves 25. understand the conditions required if twosource interference fringes are to be observed 26. recall and use λ = ax /D for doubleslit interference using light 27. recall and use d sin θ = nλ 28. describe the use of a diffraction grating to determine the wavelength of light (the structure and use of the spectrometer are not included) 
• Explaining the motion of particles of a medium when a wave passes through it for both transverse and longitudinal cases • Sketching and interpreting displacement–distance graphs and displacement– time graphs for transverse and longitudinal waves • Solving problems involving wave speed, frequency and wavelength • Investigating the speed of sound experimentally • Sketching and interpreting diagrams involving wavefronts and rays • Solving problems involving amplitude, intensity and the inverse square law • Sketching and interpreting the superposition of pulses and waves • Describing methods of polarization • Sketching and interpreting diagrams illustrating polarized, reflected and transmitted beams • Solving problems involving Malus’s law • Sketching and interpreting incident, reflected and transmitted waves at boundaries between media • Solving problems involving reflection at a plane interface • Solving problems involving Snell’s law, critical angle and total internal reflection • Determining refractive index experimentally • Qualitatively describing the diffraction pattern formed when plane waves are incident normally on a singleslit • Quantitatively describing doubleslit interference intensity patterns • Describing the nature and formation of standing waves in terms of superposition • Distinguishing between standing and travelling waves • Observing, sketching and interpreting standing wave patterns in strings and pipes • Solving problems involving the frequency of a harmonic, length of the standing wave and the speed of the wave • Solving problems involving acceleration, velocity and displacement during simple harmonic motion, both graphically and algebraically • Describing the interchange of kinetic and potential energy during simple harmonic motion • Solving problems involving energy transfer during simple harmonic motion, both graphically and algebraically • Describing the effect of slit width on the diffraction pattern • Determining the position of first interference minimum • Qualitatively describing singleslit diffraction patterns produced from white light and from a range of monochromatic light frequencies • Qualitatively describing twoslit interference patterns, including modulation by oneslit diffraction effect • Investigating Young’s doubleslit experimentally • Sketching and interpreting intensity graphs of doubleslit interference patterns • Solving problems involving the diffraction grating equation • Describing conditions necessary for constructive and destructive interference from thin films, including phase change at interface and effect of refractive index • Solving problems involving interference from thin films • Solving problems involving the Rayleigh criterion for light emitted by two sources diffracted at a single slit • Resolvance of diffraction gratings • Sketching and interpreting the Doppler effect when there is relative motion between source and observer • Describing situations where the Doppler effect can be utilized • Solving problems involving the change in frequency or wavelength observed due to the Doppler effect to determine the velocity of the source/observer 
Conceptual: • describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibration in ropes, springs and ripple tanks • understand and use the terms displacement, amplitude, phase difference, period, frequency, wavelength and speed • understand the use of the timebase and ygain of a cathoderay oscilloscope (CRO) to determine frequency and amplitude • derive, using the definitions of speed, frequency and wavelength, the wave equation v = f λ • recall and use v = f λ • understand that energy is transferred by a progressive wave • recall and use intensity = power/area and intensity ∝(amplitude)2 for a progressive wave • compare transverse and longitudinal waves • analyse and interpret graphical representations of transverse and longitudinal waves • understand that when a source of sound waves moves relative to a stationary observer, the observed frequency is different from the source frequency (understanding of the Doppler effect for a stationary source and a moving observer is not required) • use the expression fο = f sv /(v ± vs) for the observed frequency when a source of sound waves moves relative to a stationary observer • explain the applications of Doppler effect such as radar, sonar, astronomy, satellite, radar speed traps and studying cardiac problems in humans (mathematical account of relativistic doppler effect is not required) • state that all electromagnetic waves are transverse waves that travel with the same speed c in free space • recall the approximate range of wavelengths in free space of the principal regions of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to γrays • recall that wavelengths in the range 400–700nm in free space are visible to the human eye • understand that polarisation is a phenomenon associated with transverse waves • recall and use Malus’s law (I = I0 cos2θ ) to calculate the intensity of a planepolarised electromagnetic wave after transmission through a polarising filter or a series of polarising filters (calculation of the effect of a polarising filter on the intensity of an unpolarised wave is not required) • explain and use the principle of superposition • show an understanding of experiments that demonstrate stationary waves using microwaves, stretched strings and air columns (it will be assumed that end corrections are negligible; knowledge of the concept of end corrections is not required) • explain the formation of a stationary wave using a graphical method, and identify nodes and antinodes • understand how wavelength may be determined from the positions of nodes or antinodes of a stationary wave • explain the meaning of the term diffraction • show an understanding of experiments that demonstrate diffraction including the qualitative effect of the gap width relative to the wavelength of the wave; for example diffraction of water waves in a ripple tank • understand the terms interference and coherence • show an understanding of experiments that demonstrate twosource interference using water waves in a ripple tank, sound, light and microwaves • understand the conditions required if twosource interference fringes are to be observed • recall and use λ = ax /D for doubleslit interference using light • recall and use d sin θ = nλ • describe the use of a diffraction grating to determine the wavelength of light (the structure and use of the spectrometer are not included) • explain beats as the pulsation caused by two waves of similar frequences interfering with each other • recognise that beats are generated in musical instruments • explain the use of polaroids in sky photography and stress analysis of materials • explain that gravitational waves are waves of the intensity of gravity generated by the accelerated masses of an orbital binary system that propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light • recognise that as a gravitational wave passes a body with mass the distortion in spacetime can cause the body to stretch and compress periodically • recognise that gravitational waves pass through the Earth due to far off celestial events, but they are very minute amplitude • explain that interferometers are very sensitive detection devices that make use of the interference of laser beams (working and set up details are not required) and were used to first detect the existence of gravitational waves 
Knowledge of harmonics is not needed. 
What is the nature of vibration? How can vibration be studied? How can vibration be harnessed? 
Wave theory is an essential building block of physics. The traditional concepts that are taught at this level have been kept. Introduction of knowledge of gravitational waves (without adding on anthing more than basic qualitative knowledge of what spacetime is) has been added to help students appreciate the monumental discoveries of modern physics. 

Optical Lenses 
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• Describing how a curved transparent interface modifies the shape of an incident wavefront • Identifying the principal axis, focal point and focal length of a simple converging or diverging lens on a scaled diagram • Solving problems involving not more than two lenses by constructing scaled ray diagrams • Solving problems involving not more than two curved mirrors by constructing scaled ray diagrams • Solving problems involving the thin lens equation, linear magnification and angular magnification • Explaining spherical and chromatic aberrations and describing ways to reduce their effects on images • Constructing and interpreting ray diagrams of optical compound microscopes at normal adjustment • Solving problems involving the angular magnification and resolution of optical compound microscopes • Investigating the optical compound microscope experimentally • Constructing or completing ray diagrams of simple optical astronomical refracting telescopes at normal adjustment • Solving problems involving the angular magnification of simple optical astronomical telescopes • Investigating the performance of a simple optical astronomical refracting telescope experimentally • Describing the comparative performance of Earthbased telescopes and satelliteborne telescopes • Solving problems involving total internal reflection and critical angle in the context of fibre optics • Describing how waveguide and material dispersion can lead to attenuation and how this can be accounted for • Solving problems involving attenuation • Describing the advantages of fibre optics over twisted pair and coaxial cables 
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Thermodynamics 
Understanding • describe that thermal energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. • describe that regions of equal temperatures are in thermal equilibrium . • describe that heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between systems and calculate heat being transferred. • define thermodynamics and various terms associated with it. • relate a rise in temperature of a body to an increase in its internal energy. • describe the mechanical equivalent of heat concept, as it was historically developed, and solve problems involving work being done and temperature change. • explain that internal energy is determined by the state of the system and that it can be expressed as the sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of the system. • calculate work done by a thermodynamic system during a volume change. • describe the first law of thermodynamics expressed in terms of the change in internal energy, the heating of the system and work done on the system. • explain that first law of thermodynamics expresses the conservation of energy. • define the terms, specific heat and molar specific heats of a gas. • apply first law of thermodynamics to derive Cp – Cv = R. • state the working principle of heat engine. • describe the concept of reversible and irreversible processes. • state and explain second law of thermodynamics. • explain the working principle of Carnot’s engine • explain that the efficiency of a Carnot engine is independent of the nature of the working substance and depends on the temperatures of hot and cold reservoirs. • describe that refrigerator is a heat engine operating in reverse as that of an ideal heat engine. • derive an expression for the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator. • describe that change in entropy is positive when heat is added and negative when heat is removed from the system. • explain that increase in temperature increases the disorder of the system. • explain that increase in entropy means degradation of energy. • explain that energy is degraded during all natural processes. • identify that system tend to become less orderly over time. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • determine the mechanical equivalent of heat by electric method. • determine the specific heat of solid by electrical method. Science, Technology and Society Connections • describe the working of petrol engine and diesel engine. • evaluate environmental crisis as an entropy crisis. 
 understand that (thermal) energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature  understand that regions of equal temperature are in thermal equilibrium  understand that a physical property that varies with temperature may be used for the measurement of temperature and state examples of such properties, including the density of a liquid, volume of a gas at constant pressure, resistance of a metal, e.m.f. of a thermocouple  understand that the scale of thermodynamic temperature does not depend on the property of any particular substance  convert temperatures between kelvin and degrees Celsius and recall that T/K = θ/ °C + 273.15  understand that the lowest possible temperature is zero kelvin on the thermodynamic temperature scale and that this is known as absolute zero  define and use specific heat capacity  define and use specific latent heat and distinguish between specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation  understand that amount of substance is an SI base quantity with the base unit mol  use molar quantities where one mole of any substance is the amount containing a number of particles of that substance equal to the Avogadro constant NA  understand that a gas obeying pV ∝T, where T is the thermodynamic temperature, is known as an ideal gas  recall and use the equation of state for an ideal gas expressed as pV = nRT, where n = amount of substance (number of moles) and as pV = NkT, where N = number of molecules  recall that the Boltzmann constant k is given by k = R/NA  state the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases  explain how molecular movement causes the pressure exerted by a gas and derive and use the relationship pV = 3Nm onedimensional collisions and then extending to three dimensions using
31  understand that the rootmeansquare speed cr.m.s. is given by < > c2  compare pV = 3Nm 3 kT, and recall and use this expression  understand that internal energy is determined by the state of the system and that it can be expressed as the sum of a random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system  relate a rise in temperature of an object to an increase in its internal energy  recall and use W = p∆V for the work done when the volume of a gas changes at constant pressure and understand the difference between the work done by the gas and the work done on the gas  recall and use the first law of thermodynamics ∆U = q + W expressed in terms of the increase in internal energy, the heating of the system (energy transferred to the system by heating) and the work done on the system 
• Describing temperature change in terms of internal energy • Using Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales and converting between them • Applying the calorimetric techniques of specific heat capacity or specific latent heat experimentally • Describing phase change in terms of molecular behaviour • Sketching and interpreting phase change graphs • Calculating energy changes involving specific heat capacity and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization • Solving problems using the equation of state for an ideal gas and gas laws • Sketching and interpreting changes of state of an ideal gas on pressure– volume, pressure–temperature and volume–temperature diagrams • Investigating at least one gas law experimentally • Describing the first law of thermodynamics as a statement of conservation of energy • Explaining sign convention used when stating the first law of thermodynamics as Q U = ∆ +W • Solving problems involving the first law of thermodynamics • Describing the second law of thermodynamics in Clausius form, Kelvin form and as a consequence of entropy • Describing examples of processes in terms of entropy change • Solving problems involving entropy changes • Sketching and interpreting cyclic processes • Solving problems for adiabatic processes for monatomic gases usingpV53 = constant • Solving problems involving thermal efficiency 
Conceptual: • understand that (thermal) energy is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature • understand that regions of equal temperature are in thermal equilibrium • understand that a physical property that varies with temperature may be used for the measurement of temperature and state examples of such properties, including the density of a liquid, volume of a gas at constant pressure, resistance of a metal, e.m.f. of a thermocouple • understand that the scale of thermodynamic temperature does not depend on the property of any particular substance • convert temperatures between kelvin and degrees Celsius and recall that T/K = θ/ °C + 273.15 • understand that the lowest possible temperature is zero kelvin on the thermodynamic temperature scale and that this is known as absolute zero • define and use specific heat capacity • define and use specific latent heat and distinguish between specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporisation • understand that amount of substance is an SI base quantity with the base unit mol • use molar quantities where one mole of any substance is the amount containing a number of particles of that substance equal to the Avogadro constant NA • understand that a gas obeying pV ∝T, where T is the thermodynamic temperature, is known as an ideal gas • recall and use the equation of state for an ideal gas expressed as pV = nRT, where n = amount of substance (number of moles) and as pV = NkT, where N = number of molecules • recall that the Boltzmann constant k is given by k = R/NA • state the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases • explain how molecular movement causes the pressure exerted by a gas and
derive and use the relationship pV = 3Nm • understand that the rootmeansquare speed cr.m.s. is given by < > c2 • compare pV = 3Nm • understand that internal energy is determined by the state of the system and that it can be expressed as the sum of a random distribution of kinetic and potential energies associated with the molecules of a system • relate a rise in temperature of an object to an increase in its internal energy • recall and use W = p∆V for the work done when the volume of a gas changes at constant pressure and understand the difference between the work done by the gas and the work done on the gas • recall and use the first law of thermodynamics ∆U = q + W expressed in terms of the increase in internal energy, the heating of the system (energy transferred to the system by heating) and the work done on the system • recognise that the model of ideal gases is used a base from which the field of statistical mechanics emerged, and has helped explain the behavior of 'nonideal' gases through modifications to the model e.g. the behavior of stars 

What is heat? How do we measure how hot an object is? How can heat be transferred? How can heat be made use of? How does an object's temperature affect its properties? Why are there temperature differences in the universe? 
Thermodynamics is a fundamental building block of physics. These are the traditional SLOs that are covered at this level. Knowledge of entropy (the idea of entropy is philosphically introduced through the arrow of time provocation in the Nature of Science component) and Carnot cycles is omitted as these are usually taught from scratch at the university level, and require knowledge of statistics, probablility and callculus. Students also have enough conceptual challenge at this level with studying the mathematical model of an ideal gas. 

Electric Fields and Electorstatics 
Understanding • state Coulomb’s law and explain that force between two point charges is reduced in a medium other than free space using Coulomb’s law. • derive the expression E = l/4πεo q/r2 for the magnitude of the electric field at a distance ‘r’ from a point charge ‘q’. • describe the concept of an electric field as an example of a field of force. • define electric field strength as force per unit positive charge . • solve problems and analyse information using E = F/q. • solve problems involving the use of the expression . • E = l/4πεo q/r2 • calculate the magnitude and direction of the electric field at a point due to two charges with the same or opposite signs. • sketch the electric field lines for two point charges of equal magnitude with same or opposite signs. • describe the concept of electric dipole. • define and explain electric flux. • describe electric flux through a surface enclosing a charge. • state and explain Gauss’s law. • describe and draw the electric field due to an infinite size conducting plate of positive or negative charge. • sketch the electric field produced by a hollow spherical charged conductor. • sketch the electric field between and near the edges of two infinite size oppositely charged parallel plates. • define electric potential at a point in terms of the work done in bringing unit positive charge from infinity to that point. • define the unit of potential. • solve problems by using the expression V =W/q. • describe that the electric field at a point is given by the negative of potential gradient at that point. • solve problems by using the expression E = V/d. • derive an expression for electric potential at a point due to a point charge. • calculate the potential in the field of a point charge using the equation V = l/4πεo q/r. • define and become familiar with the use of electron volt. • define capacitance and the farad and solve problems by using C=Q/V. • describe the functions of capacitors in simple circuits. • solve problems using formula for capacitors in series and in parallel. • explain polarization of dielectric of a capacitor. • demonstrate charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistance. • prove that energy stored in a capacitor is W=1/2QV and hence W=1/2CV2. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • draw graphs of charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor. Science, Technology and Society Connections • describe the principle of inkjet printers and Photostat copier as an application of electrostatic phenomenon. • describe the applications of Gauss’s law to find the electric force due to various charge configurations • list the use of capacitors in various household appliances such as in flash gun of camera, refrigerator, electric fan, rectification circuit etc. 
 understand that an electric field is an example of a field of force and define electric field as force per unit positive charge  recall and use F = qE for the force on a charge in an electric field  represent an electric field by means of field lines  recall and use E = ∆V/∆d to calculate the field strength of the uniform field between charged parallel plates  describe the effect of a uniform electric field on the motion of charged particles  understand that, for a point outside a spherical conductor, the charge on the sphere may be considered to be a point charge at its centre  recall and use Coulomb’s law F = Q1Q2 /(4πε0r2) for the force between two point charges in free space  recall and use E = Q/(4πε0r2) for the electric field strength due to a point charge in free space  define electric potential at a point as the work done per unit positive charge in bringing a small test charge from infinity to the point  recall and use the fact that the electric field at a point is equal to the negative of potential gradient at that point  use V = Q/(4πε0r) for the electric potential in the field due to a point charge  understand how the concept of electric potential leads to the electric potential energy of two point charges and use EP = Qq/(4πε0r)  define capacitance, as applied to both isolated spherical conductors and to parallel plate capacitors  recall and use C = Q/V  derive, using C = Q/V, formulae for the combined capacitance of capacitors in series and in parallel  use the capacitance formulae for capacitors in series and in parallel  determine the electric potential energy stored in a capacitor from the area under the potential–charge graph  recall and use W = 21 QV = 21 CV2  analyse graphs of the variation with time of potential difference, charge and current for a capacitor discharging through a resistor  recall and use τ = RC for the time constant for a capacitor discharging through a resistor  use equations of the form x = x0 e–(t/RC) where x could represent current, charge or potential difference for a capacitor discharging through a resistor 
 Identifying two forms of charge and the direction of the forces between them Solving problems involving electric fields and Coulomb’s law  Calculating work done in an electric field in both joules and electronvolts  Identifying sign and nature of charge carriers in a metal  Identifying drift speed of charge carriers 
Conceptual: • understand that an electric field is an example of a field of force and define electric field as force per unit positive charge • recall and use F = qE for the force on a charge in an electric field • represent an electric field by means of field lines • recall and use E = ∆V/∆d to calculate the field strength of the uniform field between charged parallel plates • describe the effect of a uniform electric field on the motion of charged particles • understand that, for a point outside a spherical conductor, the charge on the sphere may be considered to be a point charge at its centre • recall and use Coulomb’s law F = Q1Q2 /(4πε0r2) for the force between two point charges in free space • recall and use E = Q/(4πε0r2) for the electric field strength due to a point charge in free space • define electric potential at a point as the work done per unit positive charge in bringing a small test charge from infinity to the point • recall and use the fact that the electric field at a point is equal to the negative of potential gradient at that point • use V = Q/(4πε0r) for the electric potential in the field due to a point charge • understand how the concept of electric potential leads to the electric potential energy of two point charges and use EP = Qq/(4πε0r) • define capacitance, as applied to both isolated spherical conductors and to parallel plate capacitors • recall and use C = Q/V • derive, using C = Q/V, formulae for the combined capacitance of capacitors in series and in parallel • use the capacitance formulae for capacitors in series and in parallel • determine the electric potential energy stored in a capacitor from the area under the potential–charge graph • recall and use W = 21 QV = 21 CV2 • analyse graphs of the variation with time of potential difference, charge and current for a capacitor discharging through a resistor • recall and use τ = RC for the time constant for a capacitor discharging through a resistor • use equations of the form x = x0 e–(t/RC) where x could represent current, charge or potential difference for a capacitor discharging through a resistor • list the use of capacitors in various household appliances such as in flash gun of camera, refrigerator, electric fan, rectification circuit etc. 

What is the nature of electric charge? How does electric charge travel? How can objects become electrically charged? How can objects be kept safe from electric charge? How can electric charges be harnessed? 
Electrostatics introduces Coulomb's law and the idea of electric potential in electric fields. These are foundational concepts for scientists and engineers. The SLOs are the ones traditionally taught in most curricula internationally at this grade level. 

Current Electricity 
Understanding • describe the concept of steady current. • state Ohm’s law. • define resistivity and explain its dependence upon temperature. • define conductance and conductivity of conductor. • state the characteristics of a thermistor and its use to measure low temperatures. • distinguish between e.m.f and p.d. using the energy considerations. • explain the internal resistance of sources and its consequences for external circuits. • describe some sources of e.m.f. • describe the conditions for maximum power transfer. • describe thermocouple and its function. • explain variation of thermoelectric e.m.f. with temperature. • apply Kirchhoff’s first law as conservation of charge to solve problem. • apply Kirchhoff’s second law as conservation of energy to solve problem. • describe the working of rheostat in the potential divider circuit. • describe what is a Wheatstone bridge and how it is used to find unknown resistance. • describe the function of potentiometer to measure and compare potentials without drawing any current from the circuit. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • indicate the value of resistance by reading colour code on it. • determine resistance of wire by slide wire bridge. • determine resistance of voltmeter by drawing graph between R and I/V. • determine resistance of voltmeter by discharging a capacitor through it. • analyze the variation of resistance of thermistor with temperature. • determine internal resistance of a cell using potentiometer. • determine e.m.f of a cell using potentiometer. • determine the e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell by plotting V against I graph. • investigate the relationship between current passing through a tungsten filament lamp and the potential applied across it. Science, Technology and Society Connections • describe the use of electrocardiograph (E.C.G.), electroencephalograph (E.E.G) instruments to study heart and brain disorders. • Explain that the inspectors can easily check the reliability of a concrete bridge with carbon fibres as the fibre conduct electricity. • identify the function of thermistor in fire alarms and thermostats that control temperature. • Identify the use of platinum resistance thermometer as standard thermometer for temperatures between 185o C to 630o C. • identify the use of thermoelectric thermometer as a standard thermometer to measure temperatures between 630o C and 1063o C. 
 understand that an electric current is a flow of charge carriers  understand that the charge on charge carriers is quantised  recall and use Q = It  use, for a currentcarrying conductor, the expression I = Anvq, where n is the number density of charge carriers  define the potential difference across a component as the energy transferred per unit charge  recall and use V = W/Q  recall and use P = VI, P = I2R and P = V2 /R  define resistance  recall and use V = IR  sketch the I–V characteristics of a metallic conductor at constant temperature, a semiconductor diode and a filament lamp  explain that the resistance of a filament lamp increases as current increases because its temperature increases  state Ohm’s law  recall and use R = ρL/A  understand that the resistance of a lightdependent resistor (LDR) decreases as the light intensity increases  understand that the resistance of a thermistor decreases as the temperature increases (it will be assumed that thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient)  recall and use the circuit symbols shown in section 6 of this syllabus  draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing the circuit symbols shown in section 6 of this syllabus  define and use the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a source as energy transferred per unit charge in driving charge around a complete circuit  distinguish between e.m.f. and potential difference (p.d.) in terms of energy considerations  understand the effects of the internal resistance of a source of e.m.f. on the terminal potential difference  recall Kirchhoff’s first law and understand that it is a consequence of conservation of charge  recall Kirchhoff’s second law and understand that it is a consequence of conservation of energy  derive, using Kirchhoff’s laws, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series  use the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series  derive, using Kirchhoff’s laws, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel  use the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel  use Kirchhoff’s laws to solve simple circuit problems  understand the principle of a potential divider circuit  recall and use the principle of the potentiometer as a means of comparing potential differences  understand the use of a galvanometer in null methods  explain the use of thermistors and lightdependent resistors in potential dividers to provide a potential difference that is dependent on temperature and light intensity 
 Solving problems using the drift speed equation  Solving problems involving current, potential difference and charge  Drawing and interpreting circuit diagrams  Identifying ohmic and nonohmic conductors through a consideration of the V/I characteristic graph  Solving problems involving potential difference, current, charge, Kirchhoff’s circuit laws, power, resistance and resistivity  Investigating combinations of resistors in parallel and series circuits  Describing ideal and nonideal ammeters and voltmeters  Describing practical uses of potential divider circuits, including the advantages of a potential divider over a series resistor in controlling a simple circuit  Investigating one or more of the factors that affect resistance experimentally  Investigating practical electric cells (both primary and secondary)  Describing the discharge characteristic of a simple cell (variation of terminal potential difference with time)  Identifying the direction of current flow required to recharge a cell  Determining internal resistance experimentally  Solving problems involving emf, internal resistance and other electrical quantities  Describing the effect of different dielectric materials on capacitance  Solving problems involving parallelplate capacitors  Investigating combinations of capacitors in series or parallel circuits  Determining the energy stored in a charged capacitor  Describing the nature of the exponential discharge of a capacitor  Solving problems involving the discharge of a capacitor through a fixed resistor  Solving problems involving the time constant of an RC circuit for charge, voltage and current 
Conceptual: • understand that an electric current is a flow of charge carriers • understand that the charge on charge carriers is quantised • recall and use Q = It • use, for a currentcarrying conductor, the expression I = Anvq, where n is the number density of charge carriers • define the potential difference across a component as the energy transferred per unit charge • recall and use V = W/Q • recall and use P = VI, P = I2R and P = V2 /R • define resistance • recall and use V = IR • sketch the I–V characteristics of a metallic conductor at constant temperature, a semiconductor diode and a filament lamp • explain that the resistance of a filament lamp increases as current increases because its temperature increases • state Ohm’s law • recall and use R = ρL/A • understand that the resistance of a lightdependent resistor (LDR) decreases as the light intensity increases • understand that the resistance of a thermistor decreases as the temperature increases (it will be assumed that thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient) • recall and use the circuit symbols shown in section 6 of this syllabus • draw and interpret circuit diagrams containing the circuit symbols shown in section 6 of this syllabus • define and use the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a source as energy transferred per unit charge in driving charge around a complete circuit • distinguish between e.m.f. and potential difference (p.d.) in terms of energy considerations • understand the effects of the internal resistance of a source of e.m.f. on the terminal potential difference • recall Kirchhoff’s first law and understand that it is a consequence of conservation of charge • recall Kirchhoff’s second law and understand that it is a consequence of conservation of energy • derive, using Kirchhoff’s laws, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series • use the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in series • derive, using Kirchhoff’s laws, a formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel • use the formula for the combined resistance of two or more resistors in parallel • use Kirchhoff’s laws to solve simple circuit problems • understand the principle of a potential divider circuit • recall and use the principle of the potentiometer as a means of comparing potential differences • understand the use of a galvanometer in null methods • explain the use of thermistors and lightdependent resistors in potential dividers to provide a potential difference that is dependent on temperature and light intensity • explain the internal resistance of sources and its consequences for external circuits • Explain how inspectors can easily check the reliability of a concrete bridge with carbon fibres as the fibres conduct electricity 

What is the nature of electric charge? How does electric charge travel? How can objects become electrically charged? How can objects be kept safe from electric charge? How can electric charges be harnessed? 
Current electricity is important for understanding how circuits operate, as well as natural processes like lightning strikes. The SLOs selected put emphasis on understanding Kirchoff's laws in line with international norms at this grade level. 

Electromagnetism 
Understanding • explain that magnetic field is an example of a field of force produced either by currentcarrying conductors or by permanent magnets. • describe magnetic effect of current. • describe and sketch field lines pattern due to a long straight wire. • explain that a force might act on a currentcarrying conductor placed in a magnetic field. • Investigate the factors affecting the force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. • solve problems involving the use of F = BIL sin θ. • define magnetic flux density and its units. • describe the concept of magnetic flux (Ø) as scalar product of magnetic field (B) and area (A) using the relation ØB = B┴ A=B.A. • state Ampere’s law. • apply Ampere’s law to find magnetic flux density around a wire and inside a solenoid. • describe quantitatively the path followed by a charged particle shot into a magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the field. • explain that a force may act on a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. • describe a method to measure the e/m of an electron by applying magnetic field and electric field on a beam of electrons. • predict the turning effect on a current carrying coil in a magnetic field and use this principle to understand the construction and working of a galvanometer. • explain how a given galvanometer can be converted into a voltmeter or ammeter of a specified range. • describe the use of avometer / multimeter (analogue and digital). • describe the production of electricity by magnetism. • explain that induced emf’s can be generated in two ways. (i) by relative movement (the generator effect). (ii) by changing a magnetic field (the transformer effect). • infer the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced emf. • state Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. • account for Lenz’s law to predict the direction of an induced current and relate to the principle of conservation of energy. • apply Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction and Lenz’s law to solve problems. • explain the production of eddy currents and identify their magnetic and heating effects. • explain the need for laminated iron cores in electric motors, generators and transformers. • explain what is meant by motional emf. Given a rod or wire moving through a magnetic field in a simple way, compute the potential difference across its ends. • define mutual inductance (M) and selfinductance (L), and their unit henry. • describe the main components of an A.C generator and explain how it works. • describe the main features of an A.C electric motor and the role of each feature. • explain the production of back emf in electric motors. • describe the construction of a transformer and explain how it works. • identify the relationship between the ratio of the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils and the ratio of primary to secondary voltages. • describe how setup and stepdown transformers can be used to ensure efficient transfer of electricity along cables. • describe the terms time period, frequency, instantaneous peak value and root mean square value of an alternating current and voltage. • represent a sinusoidally alternating current or voltage by an equation of the form x = xo sin ωt. • describe the phase of A.C and how phase lags and leads in A.C Circuits. • identify inductors as important components of A.C circuits termed as chokes (devices which present a high resistance to alternating current). • explain the flow of A.C through resistors, capacitors and inductors. • apply the knowledge to calculate the reactances of capacitors and inductors. • describe impedance as vector summation of resistances and reactances. • construct phasor diagrams and carry out calculations on circuits including resistive and reactive components in series. • solve the problems using the formulae of A.C Power. • explain resonance in an A.C circuit and carry out calculations using the resonant frequency formulae. • describe that maximum power is transferred when the impedances of source and load match to each other. • describe the qualitative treatment of Maxwell’s equations and production of electromagnetic waves. • become familiar with electromagnetic spectrum (ranging from radiowaves to γrays). • identify that light is a part of a continuous spectrum of electromagnetic waves all of which travel in vacuum with same speed. • describe that the information can be transmitted by radiowaves. • identify that the microwaves of a certain frequency cause heating when absorbed by water and cause burns when absorbed by body tissues. • describe that ultra violet radiation can be produced by special lamps and that prolonged exposure to the Sun may cause skin cancer from ultra violet radiation. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • construct a simple electromagnet and investigate the factors which influence the strength of an electromagnet. • convert a galvanometer into voltmeter of range zero to 3 V. • interpret and illustrate on the basis of experimental data, the magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a coil is stronger than a straight conductor. • examine the motion of electrons in an electric field using a Cathode Ray tube. • examine the motion of electrons in a magnetic field using a Cathode Ray tube. perform an investigation to predict and verify the effect on an electric current generated when: • the distance between the coil and magnet is varied. • the strength of the magnet is varied. • demonstrate electromagnetic induction by a permanent magnet, coil and demonstration galvanometer. • conduct a demonstration of stepup and stepdown transformer by dissectible transformer. • demonstrate an improvised electric motor. • demonstrate the action of an induction coil by producing spark. • gather information and choose equipment to investigate “multiplier “ effect (a small magnetic field created by current carrying loops of wire (wrapped around a piece of iron core lead to a large observed magnetic field). • determine the relation between current and capacitance when different capacitors are used in AC circuit using series and parallel combinations. • measure DC and AC voltages by a CRO. • determine the impedance of RL circuit at 50Hz and hence find inductance. • determine the impedance of RC circuit at 50Hz and hence find capacitance. Science, Technology and Society Connections • explain the following: (i) magnets are often fitted to the doors of refrigerators and cupboards (ii) a crane in a steelworks is fitted with a large electromagnet (iii) wheat flour is usually passed near a magnet before being packed (iv) a steel ship becomes magnetized as it is constructed • explain how magnetic effect of a current has been put to the service of mankind in domestic life and in industry e.g. (i) bullet train (ii) an electromagnetic door lock (iii) a circuit breaker (iv) computers (iv) credit cards • analyse information and use available evidence to assess the impact of medical application of physics on society (e.g. identify the function of the electromagnetic field produced in the medical equipments) magnetic resonance image(MRI) scans can be used to • detect cancerous tissues. • identify areas of high blood flow. • distinguish between gray and white matter in the brain. • analyze and present information to explain how induction heating is used in furnaces to provide oxygen free heating environment. • identify how eddy currents have been utilized in electromagnetic braking. • analyze the earthquake detecting instrument – seismometer as a good example of an application of electromagnetic induction and explain (i) any movement or vibration of the rock on which the seismometer rests (buried in a protective case) results in relative motion between the magnet and the coil (suspended by a spring from the frame. (ii) the emf induced in the coil is directly proportional to the displacement associated with the earthquake. • describe the use of stepdown and stepup transformers for the electric supply from power station to houses and electric appliances at home. • search and analyze information to identify how transmission lines are: • Insulated from supporting structure. • Protected from lightening strikes. • explain that induction coil is a form of mutual inductor widely used to generate the high voltage sparks needed to ignite the petrolair mixture in car and motorbike engines. • assess that electric motors form the heart of a whole host of devices ranging from domestic appliances such as. • vacuum cleaners. • washing machines. • electric trains. • lifts. • in a car the wind screen wipers are usually driven by one and the engine is started by another. • apply the use of infra red waves in radiant heaters, optical fibre commutations and for the remote control of TV sets and VCR’s. • describe the effect of ozone layer depletion. • illustrate the principle of metal detectors used for security checks. • state the principle of electrocardiograph in medical diagnostic. • describe the importance of oscillator circuit as broadcaster of radiowaves. • describe the principle of resonance in tuning circuits of a radio. • explain why transmission from some country TV channels are polarized at right angle to city channels. 
 understand that a magnetic field is an example of a field of force produced either by moving charges or by permanent magnets  represent a magnetic field by field lines  understand that a force might act on a currentcarrying conductor placed in a magnetic field  recall and use the equation F = BIL sin θ, with directions as interpreted by Fleming’s lefthand rule  define magnetic flux density as the force acting per unit current per unit length on a wire placed at rightangles to the magnetic field  determine the direction of the force on a charge moving in a magnetic field  recall and use F = BQv sin θ  understand the origin of the Hall voltage and derive and use the expression VH = BI /(ntq), where t = thickness  understand the use of a Hall probe to measure magnetic flux density  describe the motion of a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion of the particle  explain how electric and magnetic fields can be used in velocity selection  sketch magnetic field patterns due to the currents in a long straight wire, a flat circular coil and a long solenoid  understand that the magnetic field due to the current in a solenoid is increased by a ferrous core  explain the origin of the forces between currentcarrying conductors and determine the direction of the forces  define magnetic flux as the product of the magnetic flux density and the crosssectional area perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic flux density  recall and use Φ = BA  understand and use the concept of magnetic flux linkage  understand and explain experiments that demonstrate: • that a changing magnetic flux can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit • that the induced e.m.f. is in such a direction as to oppose the change producing it • the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced e.m.f.  recall and use Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws of electromagnetic induction  understand and use the terms period, frequency and peak value as applied to an alternating current or voltage  use equations of the form x = x0 sin ωt representing a sinusoidally alternating current or voltage  recall and use the fact that the mean power in a resistive load is half the maximum power for a sinusoidal alternating current  distinguish between rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) and peak values and recall and use I r.m.s. = I0 / 2 and Vr.m.s. = V0 / 2 for a sinusoidal alternating current  distinguish graphically between halfwave and fullwave rectification  explain the use of a single diode for the halfwave rectification of an alternating current  explain the use of four diodes (bridge rectifier) for the fullwave rectification of an alternating current  analyse the effect of a single capacitor in smoothing, including the effect of the values of capacitance and the load resistance 
• Determining the direction of force on a charge moving in a magnetic field • Determining the direction of force on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic field • Sketching and interpreting magnetic field patterns • Determining the direction of the magnetic field based on current direction • Solving problems involving magnetic forces, fields, current and charges • Describing the production of an induced emf by a changing magnetic flux and within a uniform magnetic field • Solving problems involving magnetic flux, magnetic flux linkage and Faraday’s law • Explaining Lenz’s law through the conservation of energy • Explaining the operation of a basic ac generator, including the effect of changing the generator frequency • Solving problems involving the average power in an ac circuit • Solving problems involving stepup and stepdown transformers • Describing the use of transformers in ac electrical power distribution • Investigating a diode bridge rectification circuit experimentally • Qualitatively describing the effect of adding a capacitor to a diode bridge rectification circuit 
Conceptual: • understand that a magnetic field is an example of a field of force produced either by moving charges or by permanent magnets • represent a magnetic field by field lines • understand that a force might act on a currentcarrying conductor placed in a magnetic field • recall and use the equation F = BIL sin θ, with directions as interpreted by Fleming’s lefthand rule • define magnetic flux density as the force acting per unit current per unit length on a wire placed at rightangles to the magnetic field • determine the direction of the force on a charge moving in a magnetic field • recall and use F = BQv sin θ • understand the origin of the Hall voltage and derive and use the expression VH = BI /(ntq), where t = thickness • understand the use of a Hall probe to measure magnetic flux density • describe the motion of a charged particle moving in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of motion of the particle • explain how electric and magnetic fields can be used in velocity selection • sketch magnetic field patterns due to the currents in a long straight wire, a flat circular coil and a long solenoid • understand that the magnetic field due to the current in a solenoid is increased by a ferrous core • explain the origin of the forces between currentcarrying conductors and determine the direction of the forces • define magnetic flux as the product of the magnetic flux density and the crosssectional area perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic flux density • recall and use Φ = BA • understand and use the concept of magnetic flux linkage • understand and explain experiments that demonstrate:  that a changing magnetic flux can induce an e.m.f. in a circuit  that the induced e.m.f. is in such a direction as to oppose the change producing it  the factors affecting the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. • recall and use Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws of electromagnetic induction • explain how seismometers make use of electromagnetic induction to the earthquake detection in terms of how: (i) any movement or vibration of the rock on which the seismometer rests (buried in a protective case) results in relative motion between the magnet and the coil (suspended by a spring from the frame. (ii) the emf induced in the coil is directly proportional to the displacement associated • understand and use the terms period, frequency and peak value as applied to an alternating current or voltage • use equations of the form x = x0 sin ωt representing a sinusoidally alternating current or voltage • recall and use the fact that the mean power in a resistive load is half the maximum power for a sinusoidal alternating current • distinguish between rootmeansquare (r.m.s.) and peak values and recall and use I r.m.s. = I0 / 2 and Vr.m.s. = V0 / 2 for a sinusoidal alternating current • distinguish graphically between halfwave and fullwave rectification • explain the use of a single diode for the halfwave rectification of an alternating current • explain the use of four diodes (bridge rectifier) for the fullwave rectification of an alternating current • analyse the effect of a single capacitor in smoothing, including the effect of the values of capacitance and the load resistance • define mutual inductance (M) and selfinductance (L), and their unit henry. • explain that induction coil is a form of mutual inductor widely used to generate the high voltage sparks needed to ignite the petrolair mixture in car and motorbike engines • describe the phase of A.C and how phase lags and leads in A.C Circuits. • identify inductors as important components of A.C circuits termed as chokes (devices which present a high resistance to alternating current). • apply the knowledge to calculate the reactances of capacitors and inductors. • describe impedance as vector summation of resistances and reactances (knowledge of phasor diagrams is not required) 

What is the relationship between electric and magnetic forces? How can electromagnetic effects be harnessed? 
These SLOs on electromagnetic induction go into less mathematics than the 2006 national curriculum, and go a step further than the CAIE A level curriculum by providing an account of mutual induction, impedance and reactance so that students can appreciate the working fundamentals of AC circuits. Curricula internationally vary in terms of whether they teach about impedence at this level; the decision was takien to include these concepts because they help prospective engineering students come to university with a complete background in circuit fundementals, and because they help general students get a birdseye of classical circuit components (knowledge of transistors and gates is already covered in Grades 910). 

Physics of Solids 
Understanding • distinguish between the structure of crystalline, glassy, amorphous and polymeric solids. • describe that deformation in solids is caused by a force and that in one dimension, the deformation can be tensile or compressive. • describe the behaviour of springs in terms of loadextension, Hooke’s law and the spring constant. • define and use the terms Young’s modulus, bulk modulus and shear modulus. • demonstrate knowledge of the forceextension graphs for typical ductile, brittle and polymeric materials. • become familiar of ultimate tensile stress, elastic deformation and plastic deformation of a material. • describe the idea about energy bands in solids. • classify insulators, conductors, semiconductors on the basis of energy bands. • become familiar with the behaviour of superconductors and their potential uses. • distinguish between dia, para and ferro magnetic materials. • describe the concepts of magnetic domains in a material. • explain the Curie point. • classify hard and soft ferromagnetic substances. • describe hysteresis loss. • synthesise from hysteresis loop how magnetic field strength varies with magnetizing current. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • determine Young’s modulus of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. • determine the energy stored in a spring. Science, Technology and Society Connections • describe the applications of superconductors in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic lavitation trains, powerful but small electric motors and faster computer chips. • identify the importance of hysteresis loop to select materials for their use to make them temporary magnets or permanent magnets. 
 understand that deformation is caused by tensile or compressive forces (forces and deformations will be assumed to be in one dimension only)  understand and use the terms load, extension, compression and limit of proportionality  recall and use Hooke’s law  recall and use the formula for the spring constant k = F/ x  define and use the terms stress, strain and the Young modulus  describe an experiment to determine the Young modulus of a metal in the form of a wire understand and use the terms elastic deformation, plastic deformation and elastic limit  understand that the area under the force–extension graph represents the work done  determine the elastic potential energy of a material deformed within its limit of proportionality from the area under the force–extension graph  recall and use EP = 21 Fx = 21 kx2 for a material deformed within its limit of proportionality 
N/A 
Conceptual: • distinguish between the structure of crystalline, glassy, amorphous and polymeric solids. • describe that deformation in solids is caused by a force and that in one dimension, the deformation can be tensile or compressive. • understand that deformation is caused by tensile or compressive forces (forces and deformations will be assumed to be in one dimension only) • understand and use the terms load, extension, compression and limit of proportionality • recall and use Hooke’s law • recall and use the formula for the spring constant k = F/ x • define and use the terms stress, strain and the Young modulus • describe an experiment to determine the Young modulus of a metal in the form of a wire • understand and use the terms elastic deformation, plastic deformation and elastic limit • understand that the area under the force–extension graph represents the work done • determine the elastic potential energy of a material deformed within its limit of proportionality from the area under the force–extension graph • recall and use EP = 21 Fx = 21 kx2 for a material deformed within its limit of proportionality 

How can forces manipulate the structure of materials? 
These are the traditional SLOs that are generally taught at this level. They provide a good foundation for the application of physics in engineering contexts, as well as to solid state physics research and nanoscience. 

Electronics 
Understanding • distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. • distinguish between P & N type substances. • explain the concept of holes and electrons in semiconductors. • explain how electrons and holes flow across a junction. • describe a PN junction and discuss its forward and reverse biasing. • define rectification and describe the use of diodes for half and full wave rectifications. • distinguish PNP & NPN transistors. • describe the operations of transistors. • deduce current equation and apply it to solve problems on transistors. • explain the use of transistors as a switch and an amplifier. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • draw characteristics of semiconductor diode and calculate forward and reverse current resistances. • study the half and full waver rectification by semiconductor diodes by displaying on C.R.O. • use multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between NPN and PNP transistor (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of diode and an lED. (iv) to check whether a given electric component e.g. diode or transistor is in working order. • demonstrate the amplification action of a transistor graphically by CRO Science, Technology and Society Connections • describe the function and use of LED, Photodoide and Photo voltaic cell. • analyze that the modern world is the world of digital electronics. • analyze that the computers are the forefront of electronic technology. • realize that electronics is shifting lowtech electrical appliances to hightech electronic appliances. 
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N/A 
N/A 


No need for a separate component on electronics; the big ideas are already covered in Grades 910 and through the electricity SLOs on circuits 

Relativity and Quantum Mechanics 
Understanding • distinguish between inertial and noninertial frames of reference . • describe the significance of Einstein’s assumption of the constancy of the speed of light. • identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative. • explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: – the relativity of simultaneity – the equivalence between mass and energy – length contraction – time dilation – mass increase • explain the implications of mass increase, time dilation and length contraction for space travel. • describe the concept of black body radiation. • describe how energy is distributed over the wavelength range for several values of source temperature. • describe the Planck’s hypothesis that radiation emitted and absorbed by the walls of a black body cavity is quantised. • elaborate the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation. • describe the phenomenon of photoelectric effect. • solve problems and analyse information using: E = hf and c = f λ. • identify data sources, gather, process and present information to summarise the use of the photoelectric effect in solar cells & photocells • describe the confirmation of de Broglie’s proposal by Davisson and Germer experiment in which the diffraction of electrons by the surface layers of a crystal lattice was observed. • describe the impact of de Broglie’s proposal that any kind of particle has both wave and particle properties. • explain the particle model of light in terms of photons with particular energy and frequency. • describe Compton effect qualitatively. • explain the phenomena of pair production and pair annihilation. • explain how the very short wavelength of electrons, and the ability to use electrons and magnetic fields to focus them, allows electron microscope to achieve very high resolution. • describe uncertainty principle. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work • investigate the variation of electric current with intensity of incident light on a photocell. • determine Planck’s constant using internal potential barrier of different light emitting diodes. Science, Technology and Society Connections • predict the motion of an object relative to a different frame of reference e.g. dropping a ball in a moving vehicle observed from the vehicle and by a person standing on the side walk. • identify the role of special theory of relativity in global positioning , NAVSTAR system. • summarize the use of solar cell and photoelectric cell in our daily life. • search and describe the role of electron microscope to study the micro structures and properties of matter. 
 understand that electromagnetic radiation has a particulate nature  understand that a photon is a quantum of electromagnetic energy  recall and use E = hf  use the electronvolt (eV) as a unit of energy  understand that a photon has momentum and that the momentum is given by p = E/c  understand that photoelectrons may be emitted from a metal surface when it is illuminated by electromagnetic radiation  understand and use the terms threshold frequency and threshold wavelength  explain photoelectric emission in terms of photon energy and work function energy  recall and use hf = Φ + 21mvmax2  explain why the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is independent of intensity, whereas the photoelectric current is proportional to intensity  understand that the photoelectric effect provides evidence for a particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation while phenomena such as interference and diffraction provide evidence for a wave nature  describe and interpret qualitatively the evidence provided by electron diffraction for the wave nature of particles  understand the de Broglie wavelength as the wavelength associated with a moving particle  recall and use λ = h/p  understand that there are discrete electron energy levels in isolated atoms (e.g. atomic hydrogen)  understand the appearance and formation of emission and absorption line spectra  recall and use hf = E1 – E2 
• Discussing the photoelectric effect experiment and explaining which features of the experiment cannot be explained by the classical wave theory of light • Solving photoelectric problems both graphically and algebraically • Discussing experimental evidence for matter waves, including an experiment in which the wave nature of electrons is evident • Stating order of magnitude estimates from the uncertainty principle • Using the Galilean transformation equations • Determining whether a force on a charge or current is electric or magnetic in a given frame of reference • Determining the nature of the fields observed by different observers • Using the Lorentz transformations to describe how different measurements of space and time by two observers can be converted into the measurements observed in either frame of reference • Using the Lorentz transformation equations to determine the position and time coordinates of various events • Using the Lorentz transformation equations to show that if two events are simultaneous for one observer but happen at different points in space, then the events are not simultaneous for an observer in a different reference frame • Solving problems involving velocity addition • Deriving the time dilation and length contraction equations using the Lorentz equations • Solving problems involving time dilation and length contraction • Solving problems involving the muon decay experiment • Representing events on a spacetime diagram as points • Representing the positions of a moving particle on a spacetime diagram by a curve (the worldline) • Representing more than one inertial reference frame on the same spacetime diagram • Determining the angle between a worldline for specific speed and the time axis on a spacetime diagram • Solving problems on simultaneity and kinematics using spacetime diagrams • Representing time dilation and length contraction on spacetime diagrams • Describing the twin paradox • Resolving of the twin paradox through spacetime diagrams • Describing the laws of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy within special relativity • Determining the potential difference necessary to accelerate a particle to a given speed or energy • Solving problems involving relativistic energy and momentum conservation in collisions and particle decays • Using the equivalence principle to deduce and explain light bending near massive objects • Using the equivalence principle to deduce and explain gravitational time dilation • Calculating gravitational frequency shifts • Describing an experiment in which gravitational redshift is observed and measured • Calculating the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole • Applying the formula for gravitational time dilation near the event horizon of a black hole 
Conceptual: Relativity:• distinguish between inertial and noninertial frames of reference. • describe the significance of Einstein’s assumption of the constancy of the speed of light. • identify that if c is constant then space and time become relative. • explain qualitatively and quantitatively the consequence of special relativity in relation to: – the relativity of simultaneity – the equivalence between mass and energy – length contraction – time dilation – mass increase • explain the implications of mass increase, time dilation and length contraction for space travel. • reognise that spacetime is a mathematical model in relativity that treats time as a fourth dimension of the traditional three dimensions of space. It can be thought of as a metaphorical sheet of paper that can bend, and when it bends it can cause effects such as stretching and compression seens when gravitational waves pass through objects. Quantum Physics:  understand that electromagnetic radiation has a particulate nature  understand that a photon is a quantum of electromagnetic energy  recall and use E = hf  use the electronvolt (eV) as a unit of energy  understand that a photon has momentum and that the momentum is given by p = E/c  understand that photoelectrons may be emitted from a metal surface when it is illuminated by electromagnetic radiation  understand and use the terms threshold frequency and threshold wavelength  explain photoelectric emission in terms of photon energy and work function energy  recall and use hf = Φ + 21mvmax2  explain why the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is independent of intensity, whereas the photoelectric current is proportional to intensity  understand that the photoelectric effect provides evidence for a particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation while phenomena such as interference and diffraction provide evidence for a wave nature  describe and interpret qualitatively the evidence provided by electron diffraction for the wave nature of particles  understand the de Broglie wavelength as the wavelength associated with a moving particle  recall and use λ = h/p  understand that there are discrete electron energy levels in isolated atoms (e.g. atomic hydrogen)  understand the appearance and formation of emission and absorption line spectra  recall and use hf = E1 – E2 • describe Compton effect qualitatively. • explain the phenomena of pair production and pair annihilation. • explain how the very short wavelength of electrons, and the ability to use electrons and magnetic fields to focus them, allows electron microscope to achieve very high resolution. • use the uncertainty principle to explain why emperical measurements must necessarily have uncertainty in them 

How do the assumptions of classical mechanics break down under extreme physical conditions? What is the nature of light? 
These SLOs provide a sound base in basic relativity and quantum mechanics and are in line with what is now commonly taught in most international curricula at this level. 

Atomic & Nuclear Physics 
Understanding • describe and explain the origin of different types of optical spectra. • show an understanding of the existence of discrete electron energy levels in isolated atoms (e.g. atomic hydrogen) and deduce how this leads to spectral lines. • explain how the uniqueness of the spectra of elements can be used to identify an element. • analyse the significance of the hydrogen spectrum in the development of Bohr’s model of the atom. • explain hydrogen atom in terms of energy levels on the basis of Bohr Model. • determine the ionization energy and various excitation energies of an atom using an energy level diagram. • Solve problems and analyse information using. • 1/λ = RH [1/p2– 1/n2]. • understand that inner shell transitions in heavy elements result into emission of characteristic Xrays. • explain the terms spontaneous emission, stimulated emission, meta stable states, population inversion and laser action. • describe the structure and purpose of the main components of a HeNe gas laser. • describe a simple model for the atom to include protons, neutrons and electrons. • Determine the number of protons, neutrons and nucleons it contains for the specification of a nucleus in the form Az X. • explain that an element can exist in various isotopic forms each with a different number of neutrons. • explain the use of mass spectrograph to demonstrate the existence of isotopes and to measure their relative abundance. • define the terms unified mass scale, mass defect and calculate binding energy using Einstein’s equation. • illustrate graphically the variation of binding energy per nucleon with the mass number. • explain the relevance of binding energy per nucleon to nuclear fusion and to nuclear fission. • identify that some nuclei are unstable, give out radiation to get rid of excess energy and are said to be radioactive. • describe that an element may change into another element when radioactivity occurs. • identify the spontaneous and random nature of nuclear decay. • describe the term half life and solve problems using the equation λ=0.693/T1/2 . • determine the release of energy from different nuclear reactions. • explain that atomic number and mass number conserve in nuclear reactions. • describe energy and mass conservation in simple reactions and in radioactive decay. • describe the phenomena of nuclear fission and fusion. • describe the fission chain reaction. • describe the function of various components of a nuclear reactor. • describe the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter. • describe the use of Geiger Muller counter and solid state detectors to detect the radiations. • describe the basic forces of nature. • describe the key features and components of the standard model of matter including hadrons, leptons and quarks. Investigation Skills/ Laboratory work The students will: • observe the line spectrum of mercury with diffraction grating and spectrometer to determine the wavelength of several different lines, and hence draw a conclusion about the width of visible spectrum. • examine the optical spectra by spectrometer and diffraction grating using different sources such as discharge tube (hydrogen, helium or neon) or of flames. simulate the radioactive decay of nuclei using a set of at least 100 dice and measure the simulated half life of the nuclei. • draw the characteristics curve of a Geiger Muller tube. • determine the amount of background radiation in your surroundings and identify their possible sources. • set up a G.M. point tube and show the detection of Alpha particles with the help of CRO and determine the count rate using a scalar unit. Science, Technology and Society Connections • describe the working of CT scanner. • illustrate the use of laser in medicine, industry and holography. • describe the useful properties of laser light and identify some of their uses. • Identify the requirement for safe handling of lasers. • explain the basic principle of nuclear reactor. • describe and discuss the function of the principle components of a water moderated power reactor (core, fuel, rods, moderator, control rods, heat exchange, safety rods and shielding). • explain why the uranium fuel needs to be enriched. • compare the amount of energy released in a fission reaction with the (given) energy released in a chemical reaction. • describe how the conditions in the interiors of the Sun and other stars allow nuclear fusion to take place and hence, how nuclear fusion is their main energy conversion process. • show an awareness about nuclear radiation exposure and biological effects of radiation. • describe the term dosimetry. • describe the use of radiations for medical diagnosis and therapy. • explain the importance of limiting exposure to ionizing radiation. • describe the examples of the use of radioactive tracers in medical diagnosis, agriculture and industry. 
 infer from the results of the αparticle scattering experiment the existence and small size of the nucleus  describe a simple model for the nuclear atom to include protons, neutrons and orbital electrons  distinguish between nucleon number and proton number  understand that isotopes are forms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei  understand and use the notation AZ X for the representation of nuclides  understand that nucleon number and charge are conserved in nuclear processes  describe the composition, mass and charge of α, β and γradiations (both β– (electrons) and β+ (positrons) are included)  understand that an antiparticle has the same mass but opposite charge to the corresponding particle, and that a positron is the antiparticle of an electron  state that (electron) antineutrinos are produced during β–decay and (electron) neutrinos are produced during β+ decay  understand that αparticles have discrete energies but that βparticles have a continuous range of energies because (anti)neutrinos are emitted in βdecay  represent α and βdecay by a radioactive decay equation of the form U Th 92238902342 " + 4α12 use the unified atomic mass unit (u) as a unit of mass  understand that a quark is a fundamental particle and that there are six flavours (types) of quark: up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom  recall and use the charge of each flavour of quark and understand that its respective antiquark has the opposite charge (no knowledge of any other properties of quarks is required)  recall that protons and neutrons are not fundamental particles and describe protons and neutrons in terms of their quark composition  understand that a hadron may be either a baryon (consisting of three quarks) or a meson (consisting of one quark and one antiquark)  describe the changes to quark composition that take place during β– and β+ decay  recall that electrons and neutrinos are fundamental particles called leptons  understand the equivalence between energy and mass as represented by E = mc2 and recall and use this equation  represent simple nuclear reactions by nuclear equations of the form 7N He O H 142481711 + + "  define and use the terms mass defect and binding energy  sketch the variation of binding energy per nucleon with nucleon number  explain what is meant by nuclear fusion and nuclear fission  explain the relevance of binding energy per nucleon to nuclear reactions, including nuclear fusion and nuclear fission  calculate the energy released in nuclear reactions using E = c2∆m  understand that fluctuations in count rate provide evidence for the random nature of radioactive decay  understand that radioactive decay is both spontaneous and random  define activity and decay constant, and recall and use A = λN  define halflife  use λ = 0.693/t21  understand the exponential nature of radioactive decay, and sketch and use the relationship x = x0e–λt, where x could represent activity, number of undecayed nuclei or received count rate 
• Describing a scattering experiment including location of minimum intensity for the diffracted particles based on their de Broglie wavelength • Explaining deviations from Rutherford scattering in high energy experiments • Describing experimental evidence for nuclear energy levels • Solving problems involving the radioactive decay law for arbitrary time intervals • Explaining the methods for measuring short and long halflives 
Conceptual: • infer from the results of the αparticle scattering experiment the existence and small size of the nucleus • describe a simple model for the nuclear atom to include protons, neutrons and orbital electrons • distinguish between nucleon number and proton number • understand that isotopes are forms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei • understand and use the notation AZ X for the representation of nuclides • understand that nucleon number and charge are conserved in nuclear processes • describe the composition, mass and charge of α, β and γradiations (both β– (electrons) and β+ (positrons) are included) • understand that an antiparticle has the same mass but opposite charge to the corresponding particle, and that a positron is the antiparticle of an electron • state that (electron) antineutrinos are produced during β–decay and (electron) neutrinos are produced during β+ decay • understand that αparticles have discrete energies but that βparticles have a continuous range of energies because (anti)neutrinos are emitted in βdecay • represent α and βdecay by a radioactive decay equation of the form U Th 92238902342 " + 4α12 use the unified atomic mass unit (u) as a unit of mass • understand that a quark is a fundamental particle and that there are six flavours (types) of quark: up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom • recall and use the charge of each flavour of quark and understand that its respective antiquark has the opposite charge (no knowledge of any other properties of quarks is required) • recall that protons and neutrons are not fundamental particles and describe protons and neutrons in terms of their quark composition • understand that a hadron may be either a baryon (consisting of three quarks) or a meson (consisting of one quark and one antiquark) • describe the changes to quark composition that take place during β– and β+ decay • recall that electrons and neutrinos are fundamental particles called leptons • understand the equivalence between energy and mass as represented by E = mc2 and recall and use this equation • represent simple nuclear reactions by nuclear equations of the form 7N He O H 142481711 + + " • define and use the terms mass defect and binding energy • sketch the variation of binding energy per nucleon with nucleon number • explain what is meant by nuclear fusion and nuclear fission • explain the relevance of binding energy per nucleon to nuclear reactions, including nuclear fusion and nuclear fission • calculate the energy released in nuclear reactions using E = c2∆m • understand that fluctuations in count rate provide evidence for the random nature of radioactive decay • understand that radioactive decay is both spontaneous and random • define activity and decay constant, and recall and use A = λN • define halflife • use λ = 0.693/t21 • understand the exponential nature of radioactive decay, and sketch and use the relationship x = x0e–λt, where x could represent activity, number of undecayed nuclei or received count rate • describe the function of the principle components of a water moderated power reactor (core, fuel, rods, moderator, control rods, heat exchange, safety rods and shielding). • explain why uranium fuel needs to be enriched before use • compare the amount of energy released in a fission reaction with the (given) energy released in a chemical reaction. 

What is the structure of an atom? Why and how do atoms decay? What are the fundamental building blocks of matter? How can massenergy equivalence be harnessed for the betterment of society? 
These SLOs in particle and nuclear physics are commonly taught internationally at this level and serve a good foundation in findings of modern physics from the last century. 

Medical Physics 
N/A 
 understand that a piezoelectric crystal changes shape when a p.d. is applied across it and that the crystal generates an e.m.f. when its shape changes  understand how ultrasound waves are generated and detected by a piezoelectric transducer  understand how the reflection of pulses of ultrasound at boundaries between tissues can be used to obtain diagnostic information about internal structures  define the specific acoustic impedance of a medium as Z = ρc, where c is the speed of sound in the medium  use IR / I0 = (Z1 – Z2)2 /(Z1 + Z2)2 for the intensity reflection coefficient of a boundary between two media  recall and use I = I0e–μx for the attenuation of ultrasound in matter  explain that Xrays are produced by electron bombardment of a metal target and calculate the minimum wavelength of Xrays produced from the accelerating p.d.  understand the use of Xrays in imaging internal body structures, including an understanding of the term contrast in Xray imaging  recall and use I = I0e–μx for the attenuation of Xrays in matter  understand that computed tomography (CT) scanning produces a 3D image of an internal structure by first combining multiple Xray images taken in the same section from different angles to obtain a 2D image of the section, then repeating this process along an axis and combining 2D images of multiple sections  understand that a tracer is a substance containing radioactive nuclei that can be introduced into the body and is then absorbed by the tissue being studied  recall that a tracer that decays by β+decay is used in positron emission tomography (PET scanning)  understand that annihilation occurs when a particle interacts with its antiparticle and that mass–energy and momentum are conserved in the process  explain that, in PET scanning, positrons emitted by the decay of the tracer annihilate when they interact with electrons in the tissue, producing a pair of gammaray photons travelling in opposite directions  calculate the energy of the gammaray photons emitted during the annihilation of an electronpositron pair  understand that the gammaray photons from an annihilation event travel outside the body and can be detected, and an image of the tracer concentration in the tissue can be created by processing the arrival times of the gammaray photons 
• Explaining features of Xray imaging, including attenuation coefficient, halfvalue thickness, linear/mass absorption coefficients and techniques for improvements of sharpness and contrast • Solving Xray attenuation problems • Solving problems involving ultrasound acoustic impedance, speed of ultrasound through tissue and air and relative intensity levels • Explaining features of medical ultrasound techniques, including choice of frequency, use of gel and the difference between A and B scans • Explaining the use of gradient fields in NMR • Explaining the origin of the relaxation of proton spin and consequent emission of signal in NMR • Discussing the advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound and NMR scanning methods, including a simple assessment of risk in these medical procedures 
Conceptual: • understand that a piezoelectric crystal changes shape when a p.d. is applied across it and that the crystal generates an e.m.f. when its shape changes • understand how ultrasound waves are generated and detected by a piezoelectric transducer • understand how the reflection of pulses of ultrasound at boundaries between tissues can be used to obtain diagnostic information about internal structures • define the specific acoustic impedance of a medium as Z = ρc, where c is the speed of sound in the medium • use IR / I0 = (Z1 – Z2)2 /(Z1 + Z2)2 for the intensity reflection coefficient of a boundary between two media • recall and use I = I0e–μx for the attenuation of ultrasound in matter • explain that Xrays are produced by electron bombardment of a metal target and calculate the minimum wavelength of Xrays produced from the accelerating p.d. • understand the use of Xrays in imaging internal body structures, including an understanding of the term contrast in Xray imaging • recall and use I = I0e–μx for the attenuation of Xrays in matter • understand that computed tomography (CT) scanning produces a 3D image of an internal structure by first combining multiple Xray images taken in the same section from different angles to obtain a 2D image of the section, then repeating this process along an axis and combining 2D images of multiple sections • understand that a tracer is a substance containing radioactive nuclei that can be introduced into the body and is then absorbed by the tissue being studied • recall that a tracer that decays by β+decay is used in positron emission tomography (PET scanning) • understand that annihilation occurs when a particle interacts with its antiparticle and that mass–energy and momentum are conserved in the process • explain that, in PET scanning, positrons emitted by the decay of the tracer annihilate when they interact with electrons in the tissue, producing a pair of gammaray photons travelling in opposite directions • calculate the energy of the gammaray photons emitted during the annihilation of an electronpositron pair • understand that the gammaray photons from an annihilation event travel outside the body and can be detected, and an image of the tracer concentration in the tissue can be created by processing the arrival times of the gammaray photons 

How can physics be used to help diagnose and treat medical problems? 
These SLOs are generally taught at this level, and leverage foundations in wave theory and radioactivity already made in other topics. They help students connect their physics knowledge with real world applications in the field of medicine. 

AstroPhysics 
N/A 
 understand the term luminosity as the total power of radiation emitted by a star  recall and use the inverse square law for radiant flux intensity F in terms of the luminosity L of the source F = L/(4πd2)  understand that an object of known luminosity is called a standard candle  understand the use of standard candles to determine distances to galaxies  recall and use Wien’s displacement law λmax ∝1/T to estimate the peak surface temperature of a star  use the Stefan–Boltzmann law L = 4πσr2T4  use Wien’s displacement law and the Stefan–Boltzmann law to estimate the radius of a star  understand that the lines in the emission and absorption spectra from distant objects show an increase in wavelength from their known values  use ∆λ / λ . ∆f/f . v /c for the redshift of electromagnetic radiation from a source moving relative to an observer  explain why redshift leads to the idea that the Universe is expanding  recall and use Hubble’s law v . H0d and explain how this leads to the Big Bang theory (candidates will only be required to use SI units) 
• Identifying objects in the universe • Qualitatively describing the equilibrium between pressure and gravitation in stars • Using the astronomical unit (AU), light year (ly) and parsec (pc) • Describing the method to determine distance to stars through stellar parallax • Solving problems involving luminosity, apparent brightness and distance • Explaining how surface temperature may be obtained from a star’s spectrum • Explaining how the chemical composition of a star may be determined from the star’s spectrum • Sketching and interpreting HR diagrams • Identifying the main regions of the HR diagram and describing the main properties of stars in these regions • Applying the mass–luminosity relation • Describing the reason for the variation of Cepheid variables • Determining distance using data on Cepheid variables • Sketching and interpreting evolutionary paths of stars on an HR diagram • Describing the evolution of stars off the main sequence • Describing the role of mass in stellar evolution • Describing both space and time as originating with the Big Bang • Describing the characteristics of the CMB radiation • Explaining how the CMB radiation is evidence for a Hot Big Bang • Solving problems involving z, R and Hubble’s law • Estimating the age of the universe by assuming a constant expansion rate • Applying the Jeans criterion to star formation • Describing the different types of nuclear fusion reactions taking place off the main sequence • Applying the mass–luminosity relation to compare lifetimes on the main sequence relative to that of our Sun • Describing the formation of elements in stars that are heavier than iron including the required increases in temperature • Qualitatively describe the s and r processes for neutron capture • Distinguishing between type Ia and II supernovae • Describing the cosmological principle and its role in models of the universe • Describing rotation curves as evidence for dark matter • Deriving rotational velocity from Newtonian gravitation • Describing and interpreting the observed anisotropies in the CMB • Deriving critical density from Newtonian gravitation • Sketching and interpreting graphs showing the variation of the cosmic scale factor with time • Describing qualitatively the cosmic scale factor in models with and without dark energy 
Conceptual: • understand the term luminosity as the total power of radiation emitted by a star • recall and use the inverse square law for radiant flux intensity F in terms of the luminosity L of the source F = L/(4πd2) • understand that an object of known luminosity is called a standard candle • understand the use of standard candles to determine distances to galaxies • recall and use Wien’s displacement law λmax ∝1/T to estimate the peak surface temperature of a star • use the Stefan–Boltzmann law L = 4πσr2T4 • use Wien’s displacement law and the Stefan–Boltzmann law to estimate the radius of a star • understand that the lines in the emission and absorption spectra from distant objects show an increase in wavelength from their known values • use ∆λ / λ . ∆f/f . v /c for the redshift of electromagnetic radiation from a source moving relative to an observer • explain why redshift leads to the idea that the Universe is expanding • recall and use Hubble’s law v . H0d and explain how this leads to the Big Bang theory (candidates will only be required to use SI units) 

What is 'out there' in space? Where are we located in the universe? What physical laws govern the motion of bodies in outer space? 
This topic is not included in the 2006 National Curriculum, and has been in timely fashion been introduced recently in the O/A levels curriculum. Astrophysics is a very important growing field at a time new technology is allowing humans to study in more detail than ever before the celestial bodies that are inside the universe. The SLOs have been adapted from the A level curriculum, and build upon the knowledge of SLOs in space science from Grades 910. 

Climate Physics 



Conceptual: • Describe Earth's climate system as a complex system having five interacting components: the atmosphere (air), the hydrosphere (water), the cryosphere (ice and permafrost), the lithosphere (earth's upper rocky layer) and the biosphere (living things). • Define climate as the statistical characterization of the climate system, representing the average weather, typically over a period of 30 years, and is determined by a combination of processes in the climate system, such as ocean currents and wind patterns. • Explain climate inertia as the phenomenon by which climate systems show resistance or slowness to changes in significant factors e.g. stabilization of greenhouse emissions might show a slow response due to the action of complex feedback systems • Explain that climate change can be categorised into internal variations and external forcings:  Internal variability can consist of factors that are either cyclical (e.g. the MaddenJullian oscillation caused by atmospheric circulation and convection) or random (e.g. the ocean and atmosphere can work together to spontaneously generate internal climate variability that can persist for years to decades at a time)  A change in the energy budget is called a forcing, and when the change is caused by something outside of the five components of the climate system, it is called an external forcing. Volcanoes, for example, result from deep processes within the earth that are not considered part of the climate system. Offplanet changes, such as solar variation and incoming asteroids, are also "external" to the climate system's five components, as are human actions. • Explain how global climate is determined by energy transfer from the Sun with specifc reference to the below factors and terms:  Recall and use the term Earth energy budget  Explain how the energy imbalance between the poles and the equator can affect atmospheric circulation • Explain that due to the conservation of angular momentum, the Earth's rotation diverts the air to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern hemisphere, thus forming distinct atmospheric cells. • Explain that monsoons, seasonal changes in wind and precipitation that occur mostly in the tropics, form due to the fact that land masses heat up more easily than the ocean. The temperature difference induces a pressure difference between land and ocean, driving a steady wind. • Explain that ocean water that has more salt has a higher density and differences in density play an important role in ocean circulation. • Explain howthe thermohaline circulation transports heat from the tropics to the polar regions. • Explain that ocean circulation is further driven by the interaction with wind. The salt component also influences the freezing point temperature. Vertical movements can bring up colder water to the surface in a process called upwelling, which cools down the air above • Explain, with climate systems as examples: (i) what is a positive feedback cycle (ii) what is a negative feedback cycle • Explain, using the metaphor of a butterfly's wing flaps may cause hurricanes in another part of the world, how climate science is a an example of a chaotic system (mathematics of chaos theory are not required; just the idea that with very complex systems it is very difficult to predict outcomes and they are very sensitive to initial conditions) 

How is the Earth's climate affected by forces and energy? 
This new module is included given the contemporary pressing importance of awareness about climate change. The SLOs allow students to apply their knowedge of core physics concepts (such as angular momentum, and thermodynamics) to the context of the Earth's climate system. Students don't get the oppoortunity usually at the high school lebel to study 'climate science' as a field, and this provides them with a good introduction and gives them perspective on how the many systems of the Earth are affected by human activity as well as natural events. 

Nature of Science 



Thought experiments  Explain, with examples from Physics, that a thought experiment is a hypothetical situation in which a hypothesis, theory, or principle is laid out for the purpose of thinking through its consequences  Explain how the below thought experiments helped convey important physics concepts, why they would be impractical to conduct emperically: (i) Netwon's canonball (ii) Einstein's teenager chasing a beam of light  Explain, with reference to the below examples, that a paradox is a statement that, despite apparently valid reasoning from true premises, leads to a seemingly selfcontradictory or a logically unacceptable conclusion: (i) The Grandfather paradox (ii) Achilles and the tortoise Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics:  Within the context of the electron diffraction double slit experiment, explain the below two of the many interpetations of quantum mechanics: (i) copehagen interpretation (ii) many worlds interpretation Debates about Beauty in Physics:  Explain, with examples, what do thinkers who hold the view that there is inherent mathematical beauty in the natural world mean by: (i) elegance or simplicity (ii) symmetry  Explain, with an example, a counterargument to the claim that physical truths must be inherently mathematically elegant or display symmetry Ethical Debates:  Describe the main pros and cons in the debate about: (i) whether humans should research whether there are aliens somewhere in the universe (ii) whether research should continue on uncovering the secrets of subatomic particles, given the advent of nuclear weapons 
Methods of argumentation from Grades 910 will be tested again in the context of scenario based questions that check misconceptions about topics and the way people debate these topics. These case studies on claims will also test the concepts being taught in class. 
 How did Physics as a field emerge historically and what bearing do those histories continue to have on the field's development today?  What is the subject matter of physics?  What are the underlying assumptions about the nature of the world in the discipline of physics?  What are the methods of inquiry used in physics?  What does science have to do with morality? 
This builds on the Nature of Science module in Grades 910. These SLOs are designed to help students think critically about how physicists go about inquiring into nature. The SLOs have been deliberately designed to assess the knowledge of students' to be able to convey main ideas in debates, rather than be assessed on their own opinions. This on its own is beneficial for giving students an idea of how vast the field of science is, along with its implications in other areas of inquiry such as politics and beauty. (Note that methods of argumentation from Grades 910 will be tested again in the context of scenario based questions that check misconceptions about topics and the way people debate these topics. These case studies on claims will also test the theory concepts being taught from Grades 1112 e.g. a paragraph might be given in which a person makes a wrong claim about why water evaportes when heated, and the student will be asked to identify what the misconception is and identify what the correct reasoning ough to be) Teachers are encouraged to have students learn through debates in class, and research projects, but it would not be feasible to require science teachers to prepare students in argumentative essay writing and other 'subjective' assessment formats. The SLOs do not cover all areas of physics, rather the idea is to help give students a flavor of the kinds of debates about the nature of science within the context of new topics they are studying in depth i.e. quantum mechanics and relativity, but without expecting them to do more math. 

Physics 1112  Experiment
2006 National Curriculum 
CAIE AS level 
CAIE A2 Level 
NCC Curriculum 2023 Grade 11 
NCC Curriculum 2023 Grade 12 
Guidance on NCC 2023 SLOs Elaboration on the extent of depth of study required for the SLOs and assessment expectations 
Essential Questions 
Rationale 
Questions for Feedback from Stakeholders 
Knowledge and Understanding Students should be able to: • Recognize and use physics terms and concepts accurately. • Explain phenomena, laws and models. • Show awareness of instruments and apparatus including techniques of operation and aspects of safety. Application Students should be able to: • Apply knowledge including principles of physics to everyday and unfamiliar/ novel situations. • Apply knowledge including principles of physics to selected phenomena and applications. • Apply knowledge including principles of physics in problem solving and experimental nvestigation using quantitative, numerical, theoretical and practical techniques. Analysis Students should be able to: • Discriminate between relevant and irrelevant information. • Interpret the recorded data. • Use information to identify pattern, draw inferences and conclusions. • Critically analyse information • Analyze and synthesize information for the purpose of identifying problems for inquiry and solving the problems using a variety of skills. Evaluation Students should be able to: • Evaluate information and hypothesis • Draw valid conclusions from physics data • Make predictions and put forward hypothesis • Evaluate the result of an experiment Communication Students should be able to: • Locate, select and present information in an organized and logical sequence from a variety of sources • Identify and express ideas in physics clearly and concisely. • Translate information from one form to another. • Compile, organize and interpret data, using appropriate formats and treatment, including tables, flow charts, graphs and diagrams. • Discuss issues relating to the social, economical, environmental and technological implications of physics Experimental skills and investigations Students should be able to: • Become acquainted with basic instruments and measuring techniques and acquire the ability to select method, plan experiment, use material safely and effectively. • Make observation and measurements with due regard for precision, accuracy and units. • Understand the effect of uncertainty in a measurement on the final result. • Interpret and evaluate observations and experimental data. • Present and translate experimental data graphically. • Analyze and interpret information and observations obtained in scientific and practical work. Identify patterns and trends and draw valid conclusions. Attitudes Students should acquire : • An appreciation of the role of experimental work in the field of science. • Concern for accuracy and precisions in investigations and practical work. • Inquisitiveness and interest in their study of physics. 
Successful collection of data Candidates should be able to: • set up apparatus correctly without assistance from the supervisor • follow instructions given in the form of written instructions and diagrams (including circuit diagrams) • use their apparatus to collect an appropriate quantity of data • repeat readings where appropriate • make measurements using common laboratory apparatus, such as millimetre scales, protractors, toppan balances, newton meters, analogue or digital electrical meters, measuring cylinders, calipers*, micrometer screw gauges and thermometers • use a stopwatch to measure intervals of time, including the period of an oscillating system by timing an appropriate number of consecutive oscillations • use both analogue scales and digital displays. Quality of data Candidates should be able to: • make and record accurate measurements • make measurements that span the largest possible range of values within the limits either of the equipment provided or of the instructions given. Table of results Candidates should be able to: • present numerical data and values in a single table of results • record all data in the table • draw up the table in advance of taking readings so that they do not have to copy up their results • include in the table of results columns for raw data and for values calculated from them • use column headings that include both the quantity and the unit and that conform to accepted scientific conventions Recording of data, observations and calculations Candidates should be able to: • record raw readings of a quantity to the same degree of precision • calculate other quantities from their raw data • show their working in calculations, and the key steps in their reasoning • use and justify the correct number of significant figures in calculated quantities Graph: Layout Candidates should be able to: • clearly label graph axes with both the quantity and the unit, following accepted scientific conventions • choose scales for graph axes such that the data points occupy at least half of the graph grid in both x and ydirections • use a false origin where appropriate • choose scales for the graph axes that allow the graph to be read easily, such as 1, 2 or 5 units to a 2cm square • place regularlyspaced numerical labels along the whole of each axis at least every 2cm. Graph: Plotting of points Candidates should be able to: • plot all their data points on their graph grid to an accuracy of better than 1mm. Graph: Trend line Candidates should be able to: • draw straight lines of best fit or curves to show the trend of a graph • draw tangents to curved trend lines. Interpretation of graph Candidates should be able to: • relate straightline graphs to equations of the form y = mx + c, and derive expressions that equate to the gradient and/or the yintercept of their graphs • read the coordinates of points on the trend line of a graph • determine the gradient of a straightline graph or of a tangent to a curve • determine the yintercept of a straightline graph or of a tangent to a curve, including where these are on graphs with a false origin. Estimating uncertainties Candidates should be able to: • estimate the absolute uncertainty in measurements • express the uncertainty in a measurement as an absolute or percentage uncertainty, and translate between these forms • express the absolute uncertainty in a repeated measurement as half the range of the repeated readings, where this is appropriate. Drawing conclusions Candidates should be able to: • draw conclusions from an experiment, including determining the values of constants • explain whether experimental data supports a given hypothesis • make predictions. To determine whether a relationship containing a constant is supported by experimental data, candidates should: • calculate the percentage difference between values of the constant • compare this percentage difference with a given percentage uncertainty • give a conclusion based on this comparison. Identifying limitations Candidates should be able to: • identify and describe the limitations in an experimental procedure • identify the most significant sources of uncertainty in an experiment. Suggesting improvements Candidates should be able to: • suggest modifications to an experimental arrangement that will improve the accuracy of the experiment or to extend the investigation to answer a new question • describe these modifications clearly in words or diagrams. 
Planning Defining the problem Candidates should be able to: • identify the independent variable in the experiment • identify the dependent variable in the experiment • identify the variables that are to be kept constant. Methods of data collection Candidates should be able to: • describe the method to be used to vary the independent variable • describe how the independent and dependent variables are to be measured • describe how other variables are to be kept constant • describe, with the aid of a clear labelled diagram, the arrangement of apparatus for the experiment and the procedures to be followed. Method of analysis Candidates should be able to: • describe how the data should be used in order to reach a conclusion, including details of derived quantities to be calculated from graphs. For safety considerations, candidates should be able to: • assess the risks of their experiment • describe precautions that should be taken to keep risks to a minimum. • describe the use of an oscilloscope (or storage oscilloscope) to measure voltage, current, time and frequency • describe how to use light gates connected to a data logger to determine time, velocity and acceleration • describe how other sensors can be used with a data logger, e.g. motion sensor. Data analysis Candidates should be able to: • rearrange expressions into the forms y = mx + c, y = axn and y = aekx • understand how a graph of y against x is used to find the constants m and c in an equation of the form y = mx + c • understand how a graph of log y against log x is used to find the constants a and n in an equation of the form y = axn • understand how a graph of ln y against x is used to find the constants a and k in an equation of the form y = aekx • decide what derived quantities to calculate from raw data in order to enable an appropriate graph to be plotted. Table of results Candidates should be able to: • complete a table of results following the conventions required for Paper 3 • calculate other quantities from raw data and record them in a table • use the correct number of significant figures for calculated quantities following the conventions required for Paper 3. Graph Candidates should be able to: • plot a graph following the conventions required for Paper 3 • show error bars, in both directions where appropriate, for each point on the graph • draw a straight line of best fit and a worst acceptable straight line through the points on the graph. Conclusion Candidates should be able to: • determine the gradient and yintercept of a straightline graph • derive expressions that equate to the gradient or the yintercept of their straight lines of best fit • draw the required conclusions, with correct units and appropriate number of significant figures, from these expressions. Treatment of uncertainties Candidates should be able to: • convert absolute uncertainty estimates into fractional or percentage uncertainty estimates and vice versa • show uncertainty estimates, in absolute terms, beside every value in a table of results • calculate uncertainty estimates in derived quantities • estimate the absolute uncertainty in the gradient of a graph by recalling that absolute uncertainty = gradient of line of best fit – gradient of worst acceptable line • estimate the absolute uncertainty in the yintercept of a graph by recalling that absolute uncertainty = yintercept of line of best fit – yintercept of worst acceptable line • express a quantity as a value, an uncertainty estimate and a unit. 
Safety:  test that the lab equipment is functioning properly, without any potential risk of injury, before conducting an experiment  ensure that work space for conducting the experiment is not too crowded with apparatus as to be hazardous  ensure that safe distance is kept at all times from other investigators who may be handling lab apparatus  suggest broadly what potential bodily harm could occur from physical, chemical, biological and safety hazards in the context of the experiment being conducted  recognise that it is always better to ask for help from the lab instructor when unsure of how to use new apparatus Taking Readings: • set up apparatus correctly without assistance from a supervisor • follow instructions given in the form of written instructions and diagrams (including circuit diagrams) • use apparatus to collect an appropriate quantity of data • repeat readings where appropriate • make measurements that span the largest possible range of values within the limits either of the equipment provided or of the instructions given. Plotting Graphs: • use a false origin where appropriate while plotting graphs Uncertainties: • estimate the absolute uncertainty in measurements • express the uncertainty in a measurement as an absolute or percentage uncertainty, and translate between these forms • express the absolute uncertainty in a repeated measurement as half the range of the repeated readings, where this is appropriate. Anaylysing Data: • draw straight lines of best fit or curves to show the trend of a graph • draw tangents to curved trend lines. • relate straightline graphs to equations of the form y = mx + c, and derive expressions that equate to the gradient and/or the yintercept of their graphs • read the coordinates of points on the trend line of a graph • determine the gradient of a straightline graph or of a tangent to a curve • determine the yintercept of a straightline graph or of a tangent to a curve, including where these are on graphs with a false origin. • draw conclusions from an experiment, including determining the values of constants • explain whether experimental data supports a given hypothesis and make predictions based on the data • determine whether a relationship containing a constant is supported by experimental data • for results of an experiment: (i) calculate the percentage difference between values of the constant (ii) compare this percentage difference with a pregiven percentage uncertainty (iii) give a conclusion based on this comparison. Evaluating the Experimental Design: • identify and describe the limitations in an experimental procedure • identify the most significant sources of uncertainty in an experiment. • suggest modifications:  an experimental arrangement that will improve the accuracy of the experiment or to extend the investigation to answer a new question  describe these modifications clearly in words or diagrams. 
Safety:  develop and justify safety guidelines for a proposed procedure, that also outline the overall risks of the experiment, keeping in mind: (i) the apparatus (ii) the surrounding environment (iii) need for personal protective equipment Hypothesis Formulation: Formulate a testable hypothesis by: • identifying the independent variable in the experiment • identifying the dependent variable in the experiment • identifying the variables that are to be kept constant. Methods of Data Collection: Explain the methods of data collection by: • describing the method to be used to vary the independent variable • describing how the independent and dependent variables are to be measured • describing how other variables are to be kept constant • describing, with the aid of a clear labelled diagram, the arrangement of apparatus for the experiment and the procedures to be followed. Desging Methods of Data Analysis: Explain the methods of data analysis by: • describing how the data should be used in order to reach a conclusion, including details of derived quantities to be calculated from graphs. Use of Technology: Suggest how technology can be used to digitse data collection by describing as appropriate: • the use of an oscilloscope (or storage oscilloscope) to measure voltage, current, time and frequency • how to use light gates connected to a data logger to determine time, velocity and acceleration • how other sensors can be used with a data logger, e.g. motion sensor. Conducting Data Analysis: • show uncertainty estimates, in absolute terms, beside every value in a table of results • show error bars, in both directions where appropriate, for each point on the graph • draw a straight line of best fit and a worst acceptable straight line through the points on the graph. • rearrange expressions into the forms y = mx + c, y = axn and y = aekx • understand how a graph of y against x is used to find the constants m and c in an equation of the form y = mx + c • understand how a graph of log y against log x is used to find the constants a and n in an equation of the form y = axn • understand how a graph of ln y against x is used to find the constants a and k in an equation of the form y = aekx • decide what derived quantities to calculate from raw data in order to enable an appropriate graph to be plotted. • convert absolute uncertainty estimates into fractional or percentage uncertainty estimates and vice versa • calculate uncertainty estimates in derived quantities • estimate the absolute uncertainty in the gradient of a graph by recalling that absolute uncertainty = gradient of line of best fit – gradient of worst acceptable line • estimate the absolute uncertainty in the yintercept of a graph by recalling that absolute uncertainty = yintercept of line of best fit – yintercept of worst acceptable line • express a quantity as a value, an uncertainty estimate and a unit. 
The experimental SLOs have taken inspiration from the CAIE O/A level curriculum. In Grade 11 the emphasis is put on building sophistication of students' practical data collection and analysis skills. In assessment, students will be tasks to do that involve experimentally testing a hypothesis, and then critiquing the procedure after having collected and analysed the data In Grade 12, the emphasis is put on developing the ability to design from scatch experimental procedures; the assessment will be based on students being able to articulate and design well thought out designs for testing hypotheses. 
How can you measure a physical quantity? Does universe have laws that can be emperically verified? How certain can one be of a measurement? How can sources of error be minimised in experimental data collection? 
The 2006 National Curriculum largely requires students to reproduce experiments they have already done in their classes; this does not help with learning higher order thinking skills. The experimental SLOs have taken inspiration from the CAIE O/A level curriculum. In Grade 11 the emphasis is put on building sophistication of students' practical data collection and analysis skills. In assessment, students will be tasks to do that involve experimentally testing a hypothesis, and then critiquing the procedure after having collected and analysed the data In Grade 12, the emphasis is put on developing the ability to design from scatch experimental procedures; the assessment will be based on students being able to articulate and design well thought out designs for testing hypotheses. From Grade 11 to 12 the mathematical sophistication of treatment of uncertainties and the kinds of relationships between variables increased (going from linear and quadratic to exponential and logarithmic relationships). 

Grade 11 Recommended Experiments: 1 Measure length and diameter of a solid cylinder and hence estimate its volume quoting proper number of significant figures using Vernier callipers. 2 Measure the diameters of a few ball bearings of different sizes using Screw Gauge and estimate their volumes. Mention the uncertainty in each result. 3 Determine the radius of curvature of convex lens and a concave lens using a spherometer. 4 Determine the weight of a body by vector addition of forces. 5 Verify the two conditions of equilibrium using a suspended metre rod. 6 Measure the free fall time of a ball using a tickertimer and hence calculate the value of ‘g’. Evaluate your result and identify the source of error and suggest improvements. 7 Investigate the value of ‘g’ by free fall method using electronic timer. 8 Investigate momentum conservation by colliding trolleys and tickertimer for elastic and inelastic collisions. 9 Investigate the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravity and study its relationship with the angle of inclination by plotting graph between force and sinθ. 10 Determine the moment of inertia of a fly wheel. 11 Investigate the fall of spherical steel balls through a viscous medium and determine. (i) terminal velocity (ii) coefficient of viscosity of the fluid 12 Verify that the time period of the simple pendulum is directly proportional to the square root of its length and hence find the value of ‘g’ from the graph. 13 Determine the acceleration due to gravity by oscillating massspring system. 14 Determine the value of ‘g’ by vibrating a metal lamina suspending from different points. 15 Determination of frequency of A.C by Melde’s apparatus / electric sonometer. 16 Investigation of the laws of vibration of stretched strings by sonometer or electromagnetic method. 17 Determine the wavelength of sound in air using stationary waves and to calculate the speed of sound using resonance tube. 18 Determine the wavelength of light by using a diffraction grating and spectrometer. 19 Determine the slit separation of a diffraction grating by using laser light of unknown wavelength. 20 Measure the diameter of a wire or hair using laser. 21 Determine the pick count of a nylon mesh by using a diffraction grating and a laser. 22 Measure the mechanical equivalent of heat by electric method. 23 Determine the specific heat of a solid by electrical method. 








Grade 12 Recommended Experiments: 1. Determine time constant by charging and discharging a capacitor through a resistor. 2. Determine resistance of wire by slide Wire Bridge. 3. Determine resistance of voltmeter by drawing graph between R and I/V. 4. Determine resistance of voltmeter by discharging a capacitor through it. 5. Analyse the variation of resistance of thermistor with temperature. 6. Determine internal resistance of a cell using potentiometer. 7. Determine emf of a cell using potentiometer. 8. Determine the emf and internal resistance of a cell by plotting V against I graph. 9. Investigate the relationship between current passing through a tungsten filament lamp and the potential applied across it. 10. Convert a galvanometer into voltmeter of range 0 – 3 V. 11. Determine the relation between current and capacitance when different capacitors are used in AC circuit using different series and parallel combinations of capacitors. 12. Determine the impedance of a RL circuit at 50Hz and hence find inductance. 13. Determine the impedance of a RC circuit at 50Hz and hence find capacitance. 14. Determine Young’s modulus of the material of a given wire using Searle’s apparatus. 15. Draw characteristics of semiconductor diode and calculate forward and reverse current resistances. 16. Study the half and full wave rectification by semiconductor diodes by displaying on CRO 17. Study of the variation of electric current with intensity of light using a photocell. 18. Determine Planck’s constant using internal potential barrier of different light emitting diodes. 19. Observe the line spectrum of mercury with diffraction grating and spectrometer to determine the wavelength of several different lines, and hence, draw a conclusion about the width of visible spectrum. 20. Using a set of at least 100 dice, simulate the radioactive decay of nuclei and measure the simulated half life of the nuclei. 21. Draw the characteristics curve of a Geiger Muller tube. 22. Determine the amount of background radiation in your surrounding and identify their possible sources. 23. Set up a G.M. point tube and show the detection of alpha particles with the help of CRO and determine the count rate using scaler unit. 







